West, Ian, M. 2020. Bibliography of the Geology of Barton, Highcliffe and Hordle [Hordwell] Cliff: Geology of the Wessex Coast of southern England. Internet site: www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/bartbib.htm. Faculty of Natural and Environmental Science, Southampton University, Updated version: 7th September, 2020.
Highcliffe, Barton and Hordle Cliff Bibliography

Ian West,
Romsey, Hampshire,

and Visiting Scientist at:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
Southampton University,

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Bibliography - Geology of Highcliffe, Barton and Hordle Cliffs

Apart from a bibliographic listing, this is also for references used in the Highcliffe, Barton and Hordle Cliffs webpages. Thus some papers listed here do not refer directly to the Barton area, but may be used for comparison or other purposes. There are a few papers on the adjacent coast of Mudeford and Hengistbury Head, but this area is not covered thoroughly in the present bibliography. See also: |Hengistbury Head - Bibliography

For geological, geomorphological and civil engineering information and photographs regarding Highcliffe, Barton and Hordle Cliff please see:

Highcliffe and Barton - Geological Field Guide

Highcliffe, Barton & Hordle Coast Erosion and Sea Defences

Hordle Cliff - Headon Hill Formation, Solent Group (Eocene)

For additonal references on related subjects please see:

New Forest Bibliography
Isle of Wight Bibliography
Solent Geology Bibliography - General
Solent Geology Bibliography - Topics, Alphabetically
Bournemouth - Hengistbury Head - Bibliography

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Allen, L.G. and Gibbard, P.L. 1993. Pleistocene evolution of the Solent River of southern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, 12, 503-528.


Amitrov, O.V. 1994. Changes in the composition of gastropds in West Eurasian seas at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 1, 16-26. Jan-March, 1994. Language - Russian. Abstract: Analysis of Bartonian, Priabonian and Rupelian marine gastropod assemblages of Europe and Western Asia confirms the fact that the Eocene-Oligocene boundary was a moment of quick cooling. But it was only an episode in the process of cooling which had begun earlier. In northern seas faunal changes were much more essential than in the Tethys. [Russian publication relevant to Bartonian faunas]


Andrews, C.W. 1907. Note on a cervical vertebra of a Zeuglodon [in modern terminology - Zygorhiza wanklyni, the smaller of the Barton whales] from the Barton Clay of Barton Cliff (Hampshire). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 63, pp 124-127. 1 fig. This is a posterior cervical vertebra. There is a figure, a drawing at two-thirds natural size. It was obtained from a local collector, Mr Eliot-Walton, who had obtained the specimen from a local collector who had already sold some associated vertebrae to casual visitors to Barton. Mr. Eliot-Walton brought the vertebra to the British Museum (now the Natural History Museum, London). There is discussion of comparison with remains of early whales from the Fayum Desert.


Anonymous. Undated (probably 1970s or 80s). New Milton and Barton-on-Sea; Official Guide. (old copy - days of Cavalier and Mini cars). 68pp. With a section on the history of New Milton and its surrounding area.

Anonymous. Undated (circa 1980). Coastal Erosion at Barton-on-Sea. Exercises for students with many newspaper cuttings from the 1970s, mostly from the Southern Evening Echo, Southampton Edition. 38 pp, A4 in ring binder. Excellent compilation together with many stimulating questions on sea-defence, environmental and planning matters regarding Barton. It includes a predicted 50 year ahead cliff line. The source of this student manual is not known. Any information on it would be appreciated.

Anonymous. 1978. Today in the South; Barton-on-Sea. Southern Evening Echo. Southampton, 90th year, No. 27-?. Warning notices have been put up because of cliff falls and danger of further slips. Footpaths have collapsed and at Barton-on-Sea Golf Club, where the clifftop second green has had to be abandonned, the fourth green is now threatened. [end of short article].

Anonymous. 1981. Cliff work delayed by cash snag. Southern Evening Echo, Newspaper 27 Feb. 1981. "Further work to stabilise the eroded cliffs at Barton-on-sea has been hit by the lack of a Government grant. A scheme costing 54,000 pounds at today's prices is now to be put back a year, when it is hoped Environment Department cash will be available. In the meantime, New Forest Council's Environmental Services Committee has approved stengthening work to a groyne at an estimated expense of 9,500 pounds which will have to be met from revenue expenses"...[continues].

Anonymous. 1982a. History buried in clay. Southern Evening Echo. [probably Friday, December 10, 1982]. What is so special about Barton's fossils? Forty million years ago the cliffs formed the floor of a predecessor of the Channel, explains Dr West of Southampton University's Geology Department. The Barton clay has beautifully preserved more than 500 species of shell. Remains of corals, ray-fish, crocodiles, whales, giant fan-shells, turtles, crabs and sea-urchins are to be found - specimens typical of a warmer climate similar to Japan or Australia. The specimens are of such quality Dr West sees the cliffs as a kind of reference book for the period 40 million years ago. Where other scientists turn to books for help, geologists use formations like the Barton Cliffs as their reference. "The sequence of fossils is the most diverse and abundant assemblage of fossils of this age anywhere in Europe" says NCC geologist, Dr Keith Duff. Some geologists claim Darwin might never have developed his theory of evolution if it had not been for Barton's fossils. His teacher was Charles Lyell from Cadnam who studied the fossils intensively. [end of article].

Anonymous. 1982b. Cliff fall fear grows. Southern Evening Echo, Friday, September 10, 1982, p. 49. Extracts: Barton's district councillor, Mr. Eddie Nabney, has expressed concern that there might have to be a major cliff-fall before work can go ahead on sea-defences along his local coastline. Officers at a meeting of the Environmental Services Committee told Mr. Nabney that it was likely to be 1984 or 1985 before work began on three new strongpoints and cliff stabilisation of land west of Chewton Bunny.. But Mr Nabney had sharp words for geologists too. They should realise that people's properties had to be protected. They themselves could causing damage and erosion. Hammering away at the foot of cliffs could not be doing any good, he said.

Anonymous. 2004. Paths closed after Barton cliff moves. Lymington Times, no. 3747, Saturday, January 24th, 2004. p.1.
Nearly a quarter of a mile of the coastal path at Barton-on-Sea has been closed by the council to protect the public. Exceptionally heavy rainfall in the last few months had created further cliff movement in an area which was already notorious for the speed with which it was eroding, said New Forest District Council. The closures affect the upper and lower tracks between the Sea Road access and Hoskins Gap to the east, a distance of approximately 400m.
The rain gauge at Naish Holiday Village recorded 84mm of rain in October, 147mm in November and 118mm in December. Evidence of further cliff movement I at Barton had been detected last week and existing tension cracks had widened at the bottom of the Sea Road access. Mudslides had also covered the lower access tracks with soft clay and mud. Signs have been placed at various locations to advise members of the: public not to use the closed sections of the footpath or walk over cliff slopes because of the current levels of instability.
"It is vital that people obey the notices and do not take any unnecessary risks," said Coun. Michael I Thierry, New Forest District Council's portfolio holder for environment. : "We have put up the fences for the time being in order to protect mem- I bers of the public from a very real threat to their safety. There are many people who visit Barton cliffs who are not familiar with the territory and do not have local knowledge. We hope that everyone will understand the reasons for those closures and that they will act responsibly to protect themselves and other users. "The council's coastal protection team will continue to monitor the situation and revise the access track closures when it is considered appropriate."
[end of short article]

Anonymous. 1984. Clifftop land purchase order to be enforced. Christchurch Advertiser, 2 February, 1984. Christchurch Council has voted to go ahead with a compulsory purchase order on clifftop land at Highcliffe so urgent coast protection work can be undertaken. The order was urged on the council's works committee following the breakdown of talks with landowners to buy some 650 yards of the clifftop from Highcliffe Castle to Culmore Steps. In November the committee reluctantly shelved its plans for the half million pound cliff protection scheme, insisting that the project was not viable if the council did not own all the land. But a petition from the anxious residents of flats in Arundel Way nearest to the crumbling cliff edge prompted the committee to think again and press for compulsory purchase... Main feature of the stabilisation work is to sink a diaphragm wall into the clifftop to prevent water running down the cliff face causing erosion.

Anonymous. 2007. False earthquake alert sparked by Barton cliff crack. Lymington Times (Newspaper), No. 3919, Saturday, May 5th, 2007, page 1 and continued on page 3.

"A mountain out of a molehill" was how a geological expert described the response of authorities to fears that a long-standing crack in the cliffs at Barton was linked to the Kent earthquake [of the 28 April, 2007]. The alarm was raised on Saturday morning by a member of the public, evidently not familiar with area's crumbling cliffs, who saw the crack after hearing about the tremor in Dover.
The police soon arrived in four marked cars accompanied by an ambulance and paramedics. They cordoned off part of the road and access to beach huts until it was found that there was nothing amiss. Later in the morning they removed road restrictions and allowed access to the huts. Inspections later carried out on the site by several groups of experts confirmed that the cliff crack had not suddenly emerged at the weekend and also quashed rumours of any possible link to the Kent earthquake. There was no crack in the road as had also been reported.
The Maritime and Coastguard Agency had originally said it was "too coincidental" to ignore links between the Kent quake and the crack, but British Geological Survey (BGS) experts who investigated the area on Tuesday said a "mountain had been made out of a molehill".
Peter Hobbs, who carried out the BGS inspection alongside Paul Witney, and is on the Natural Environment Research Council, told the 'A&T': "We have no major concerns, it appears as though the crack has been there for quite some time and has only just been noticed.
We found small pieces of what looked like recent debris at the bottom of the clif face, but the debris was not in a close proxitnity to the fissure. From what we can examine it is pretty certain this incident cannot be linked to the Kent earthquake at all, and a mountain has been made out of a molehill.
All the time pieces are falling from the cliff and already there are plenty of cracks on the cliff face. We have no major concerns, this is nothing to cause major alarm.
Another expert, Steve Cook of NFDC's coastal protection team, said the issue had been "blown out of proportion". He added that there will not be any urgent action to stabilise the cliff and that along-term study of the whole local coastal area was investigating potential future management plan schemes.
Professor Andrew Bradbury, NFDC coastal projects manager, added: "It is obvious to the trained eye that the ground movements are not recent. For example, grass has grown across the cracks, the cracks are generally filled with dry compacted soil and the colouring of the cracks is heavily weathered." He added: "Ground movements are a common feature on coastal cliffs all around the country and are , part of a natural evolutionary process. Movements may occur suddenly at any time of the year but are most common during the wet winter months. Members of the public are advised to use common sense and not to approach the edge when in the vicinity of cliffs to ensure their own safety."
Locals who regularly visit the honeypot site said they understood why the beach huts were shut-off, . but claimed the police actions in shutting the road, coupled with TV, radio and alarmist press reports, caused undue panic.
One resident commented: "These cracks have been around for years. I have walked along the cliffs regularly for a long time now and there are small amendments in the cliff face every now and then but there has never been any alarm or panic over those". Another, who also wished to be unnamed, said: ''We have seen similar faults in the cliff-face for a long time, and the initial over-zealous policing to in shutting off the road meant people thought the situation was much worse than it actually was.
"Additionally, some of the national papers reported landslides, risks, controlled explosions, tsunamis and, earthquakes which made people think the worst, but in reality it seemed a lot different to locals who know the coastline well."
A spokeswoman for Hampshire police said that officers who put the cordon up at the huts and on the road were acting on the advice of the Coastguard Agency and the local council, adding: ''The measures were used as a matter of public safety, which was a priority as the potential seeping of the cliff face meant fencing was put up which prevented members of the public from going near the edge.
"As regards to the road, it was sealed off by officers and the coastguard for about 45 metres with the protection of the public in the officers, main interests. When it was established it was safe by experts from NFDC it was reopened."
District councillor Fran Carpenter said three clifftop residents had approached her for clarification on the potential damage caused by the crack during an informal discussion in Barton on Monday night. It was added that members of the clifftop association were aware and up to date on the situation.
Other residents were reported to be angry with the misleading reports, believing they could detrimentally affect house prices. Tim Baber, who owns a beach hut directly underneath the crack, said he noticed the fault before he bought the hut in April and had written to the district council. He also said that the annual general meeting of the New Forest Beach Hut Owners Association, held three days before the crack was reported, had made no mention of cliff falls.
"In any event, after years of considered sea defence work, re-modelling of the cliff environment and drainage work, the risk is minimal - it just looks scary to the uninitiated.
"At Christchurch the coastal landscape has been sculpted and is very safe and in my view they are trying to do the same at Barton. At the end of the day I will enjoy my hut and any problems I will leave to the experts to sort out," Tim, a librarian, said.
The epicentre of the earthquake at Kent, which measured 4.3 on the Richter scale, was about 7.5 miles off the Dover coast. It temporarily knocked out power lines and chimneys, and resulted in one person, a 30-year-old woman, receiving minor injuries. There are around 200 - 300 earth- .. quakes across the UK annually but most go unnoticed as they are so small. The Kent incident was the biggest earthquake nationally for five years; the last, in Dudley, West Midlands, measured 4.8 on the Richter scale. [end of article, which also includes a photograph of the "earthquake crack" and of a police car].


Aubry, M.P. 1986. Palaeogene calcareous nannoplankton biostratigraphy of northwestern Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 55, 267-334.

Avenues Ltd. 1999. Undercliff vegetation trials Barton-on-Sea. Report to New Forest District Council, May 1999. (not seen).


Bale, B. 1984. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Upper Eocene Sediments in the Hampshire Basin of Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Southampton University. 493 pp. plus 7 additional, unnumbered plates. [a very large, heavyweight, thesis with the most geochemical data on the Barton Clay, Becton Sand etc. that exists] By Professor Rafiu Babatunde Adetunji Bale. Supervised by the late Dr Michael Cosgrove and by Trevor Clayton. Financially supported by the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. April, 1984...
Abstract: Sediments of the marine Barton Clay Formation, Barton Sand Formation, and the non-marine 'Lower Headon Beds' exposed along the coastal cliffs on mainland Hampshire and Isle of Wight have been investigated mineralogically and geochemically... Sandy-clays and quartz-sand predominate and are dominated by quartz, clays and microcline feldspar with small amounts of anatase, goethite, pyrite, albite, oligoclase, biogenic calcite, aragonite and organic-carbon. The clay assemblage comprises degraded illite, smectite, kaolinite, illite-smectite and traces of chlorite... Geochemically the sediments are silica-rich but poor in alkali and alkaline-earths. Their trace element contents shows strong associations with clays and feldspars; whilst substantial concentrations of As, Ce, Cr, Cu, I, Mn, Pb, Zn occur with plant remains and/or carbonates. In general the sediments show no significant facies-related compositional variation nor evidence for substantial diagenetic alteration... Support is provided for sediment derivation from Cretaceous sediments and infrabasinally-exposed Tertiary sediments on adjoining land areas in England and horst structures in the English Channel. Continuous low-scale tectonic movements and episodic eustatic sea-level fluctuations caused alternating periods of slow, clayey deposition and relatively shorter periods of rapid sandy sandy sedimentation... Palaeosols related to red-yellow podzols and hydromorphic swamps have been identified. These contain abundant authigenic kaolinite and goethite. Lepidocrocite, jarosite and gypsum occur in association with the hydromorphic palaeosols, although these are difficult to distinguish from Recent weathering products... Authigenesis of Fe- and Ca-rich phases was widespread. Freshwater limestones were formed, dominantly composed of micritic low-Mg calcites. Glauconitic -mica formed in the Barton Clay, predominantly within microfossil tests. Its time of formation appears to be substantially less than previously considered likely. Calcian-siderite ironstones and ferroan-calcite septarian concretions formed in early diagenesis at very shallow depths. The siderite shows between 1 and 10 mol% Ca2+ substitution. The substitution is facies related, and greatest in marine and 'brackish' sediments. Ferroan calcite occurs in association with glauconie within marine sediments only. It is believed to form rather than siderite as a result of the early depletion of iron-oxide during glauconitisation. The formation of these low-Mg carbonate phases is unusual at shallow depths, and is believed to result from the high influx of iron-oxide and dissolved CaCO3... The clay assemblage, the red-yellow podzol palaeosols and the authigenic phases, together, suggest the prevalence of a warm, humid, probably sub-tropical palaeoclimate with moderate-intense weathering and active erosion. [End of Abstract].

Chapter 1: Introduction: p.1-29 secundum. [Hampshire Basin, Upper Eocene stratigraphy, Previous Studies etc.]
Chapter 2: Sampling and Description of the Upper Eocene Sucession: p.32-54. [Highcliffe - Milford; Alum Bay, Whitecliff Bay etc.]
Chapter 3: Experimental: p. 55 et seq. [X-ray diffraction, thin-section petrography, electron microscopy, geochemistry, glauconitic grains etc.]
Chapter 4: Quartz, Feldspar, Clay Minerals [total clay] and Other Detrital Minerals: p. 93-164
Chapter 5: Clay Mineralogy: Kaolinite, Illite, Smectite, Illite-Smectite, Smectite with chlorite-like hydroxy-aluminium interlayer, summary of clay mineral abundance, derivation of the clay assemblage, explanation of the phases' abundance and crystallinities; the kaolinite and illitic assemblages at Alum Bay, Isle of Wight, Chlorites, Palaeoenvironmental significance of the clay assemblage.
Chapter 6: Glauconies [i.e. "glauconite" in non-technical language]: Terminology, Morphology, Morphology, Structure and Composition, Genesis, Modes of Formation; Glauconies from the Barton Clay Formation, externald and internal morphologies, structure and compositions, genesis and sedimentological conditions, summary.
Chapter 7. Authigenic Kaolinite: Introduction, Macromorphology, Micromorphology, X-ray characteristics (crystallinity and structural disorder), non-kaolinite contents, chemical composition, genesis, summary.
Chapter 8. Pyrite. Introduction, Distribution, Petrology, Genesis.
Chapter 9. Iron Oxides - Goethite and Lepidocrocite. Introduction. Review of iron-oxide phases, goethite and lepidocrocite in the Upper Eocene of the Hampshire Basin.
Chapter 10. Exogenous Minerals - Gypsum and Jarosite. Gypsum, Introduction, Distribution, Morphology, Genesis; Jarosite, Introduction, Distribution and Genesis.
Chapter 11. [pp. 218-229] Biogenic Aragonite and Calcite. Introduction, Review of invertebrate shells, Aragonitic and Calcitic Fossil Shells in the Upper Eocene Hampshire Basin. Occurence, Mineralogy, Petrology, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr contents; Summary.
Chapter 12. [pp. 230-253] Major Element Geochemistry of the Clastic Sediments. Introduction, Elemental Abundances, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO,CaO, Na2O and K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Sulphur, CO2. -- 12.3. Discussion - Comparison with Sediment Types, 12.4 Summary.
Chapter 13. [pp. 254-265] The Freshwater Limestones - Petrology, Mineralogy and Major Element Compositions. Introdcutron, Brief Review of Freshwater Limestones, Petrology, Mineralogy and Chemical Composition, Carbonate Contentss, Non-Carbonate Contents, Comparison to Limestones, Mode of Deposition, Summary.
Chapter 14. [pp. 266-310] Calcareous snd Sideritic Diagenetic Carbonates. Introduction, Review of Diagenetic Carbonates, Diagenetic Carbonates in the Upper Eocene of Hampshire Basin [including Sideritic Ironstones, p. 280.], Discussion, Mode of Formation.
Chapter 15. [pp. 311-351] Trace Element Geochemistry [Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Uranium, Thorium, Lead, Arsenic, Zinc, Copper, Titanium, Rubidium, Strontium, Zirconium, Niobium, Molybdenum, Barium, Iodine, Rare-Earths - Yttrium, Cerium and Lanthanum. Moddes of Occurrence, Resistates, Hydrolysates, Sulphide/Organic Matter, Carbonates, Summary.
Chapter 16. [pp. 352-376] Palaeosols. Introduction. The Red-Yellow Podzols and Gleysols. Morphology, Micromorphology, Voids, Voidal and Non-Skeletal Matrial, Mineralogy, Chemical Composition. Hydromorphic (Swamp/Marsh) Soils, Morphology, Micromorphology, Composition, Discussion, Comparison with Established Soil Typte, Development of the Soils, Environmental Settings, Soil Processes.
Chapter 17. [pp. 377-447]. Discussion. Palaeoclimatic Conditions, Regional Palaeoclimate, Previous Floral-based Reconstructions, Previous Mineralogical-based Reconstructions, Reconstructions from Present Study, Summary. Palaeogeography and Sedimentological Conditions. Previous Palaeogeographic Reconstructions. Regional Palaeogeography, The Upper Eocene Depositional Environments, Deductions from the Present Study, Facies Variation, Water Depths and Current Conditions, Submarine Conditions, Sub-aerial Conditions. Sediment Derivation, Previous Deductions, Deductions from the Present Study, Nature of the Source Rocks, Mode of Derivatinon. Synthesis of the Upper Eocene Sedimentation. Eustatic Sea-level Fluctuation. Regional Subsidence (and isostatic adjustments), Variations in Sedimentation. Mineral Authigenesis. The Pedogenic/Exogenic Phases, Sub-aqueous authigenesis of Micritic Calcite. Diagenetic Minerals, Glauconitic-mica Glaucony, Pyrite, Ca-Siderites and Ferroan Calcite.
Conclusions. References, Plates, Appendices, List of Figures, List of Tables.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. Aims of the Study. - main text and figures of the large thesis now follow to p. 483 (with colour plates afterwards).



For Barbara, Marchioness of Hastings, go down to "Hastings".



Barton, M. E. - Dr. Max Barton of Southampton University. Author of many publications on the Engineering Geology of the Barton cliffs.

Barton, M.E. 1970. The degradation of the Barton Clay cliffs of Hampshire, England. Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Engineering Geology, Paris, 1, 131-140.

Barton, M.E. 1973. The degradation of the Barton Clay Cliffs of Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 6, 423-440. By Max Edrich Barton, Department of Civil Engineering, Southampton University, SO9 5NH. Abstract: The Barton Clay crops out along a 4.8 km stretch of the Hampshire coast and together with its capping of Plateau Gravels forms a cliff profile averaging around 30 to 37m high. The original classic work on the geology of the Barton Clay had suggested a total thickness of only 34.5m; more recent work involving boring and levelling on the cliff face has shown the formation to be 46.5m thick. Active degradation of the outcrop creates a markedly stepped profile, relatively flat bench levels being separated from one another by steeper scarp slopes. The benches are underlain by up to 6m of slipped debris or bench rubble. The scarps are formed by exposures of the solid Barton clay and the Plateau Gravel in the case of the top scarp. The interface between the bench rubble and the Barton Clay is formed by a shear surface, an underground continuation of the scarp surfaces, which has been polished and grooved as a result of seaward movement of the bench rubble. These shear surfaces are developed along particular, identifiable stratigraphic horizons within the Barton Clay and tend to develop along these horizons irrespective of the height of the latter within the cliff profile. Variations in the morphology occur laterally along the outcrop and can be related to erosional history and partly to the geology.. Five individual processes of degradation are particularly active on the undercliffs; these comprise bench sliding which is sliding of the bench rubble over the shear surfaces, collapse of the scarp slopes or scarp slumping, wearing down of the scarp slope by weathering or scarp spalling, and erosion by mud-flows and running water. Both mud-flows and streams when well developed cut through bench rubble and into the scarp slope and locally destroy the stepped profile. The current activity of these processes is due to marine erosion of the toe, the net result of the processes being a progressive retreat of the cliff top averaging over one metre per year in some places.

Barton, M.E. 1977. Landsliding along bedding planes. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geologists, 16, 5-7.

Barton, M.E. 1984. Periglacial features exposed in the coastal cliffs at Naish Farm, near Highcliffe. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 40, 5-40. By Professor Max Barton. Civil Engineering Department, Southampton University.
A key paper, by Professor Max Barton on periglacial features in the cliffs between Highcliffe and Barton-on-Sea - front page only
Abstract: Superficial structures of periglacial origin have been examined in the cliff top scarp exposures at Naish Farm, near Highcliffe. They include a presumed valley bulge, frost wedge casts and involutions and cryoturbation structures. They are compared with similar fossil structures seen elsewhere in southern England and their affinities, origin and possible ages are discussed. It is suggested that in view of the frequently comparable, but usually less well-exposed, geological conditions in the Hampshire Tertiary Basin, such features may be of rather more common occurrence in the region than has been realised hitherto.
[small example extract from p. 18: "Reference has already been made to other occurrences of involutions and cryoturbation structures at Highcliffe. Further evidence for the wide distribution of these features is given by White (1915 and 1917). In the railway cuttings northeast of Milton he observed the Headon Beds to be 'puckered and contorted' in many places beneath the gravels, and in mapping Plateau Gravels over the area covered by the Bournemouth sheet he often noted 'contortions and trail' in the superficial parts of the gravel at various altitudes. Cryoturbated contortions in the upper part of the Bracklesham Beds beneath the Plateau Gravel have been examined by the author in the company of Mr R Cater in a cutting slope on the Chandler's Ford By-Pass (NGR 483 192). The contortions were highlighted by the folding and overfolding of a thin lignite band within a clay facies. The Plateau Gravel was about 1.5m in thickness and the contortions extended to about 3.5m below the ground surface (Hampshire County Council Report 1981)."]

Barton, M.E. 1998. Geotechnical problems with the maintenance of geological exposures in clay cliffs subject to reduced erosion rates. Pp. 32-45 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. Summary: Geological conservation interests generally require exposure of the strata but in clay cliffs such a requirement is incompatible with cessation of cliff top recession. The problem is examined by introducing the concept of 'exposure ratio', being the ratio of the cumulative height of all exposed strata to the total height of the cliff. The effects on exposure ratio resulting from various rates of toe erosion are discussed with particular reference to the Naish Farm portion of the Barton Clay cliffs of Hampshire where the conflict between geological conservation requirements and local interests are very acute.

Barton, M.E. 2007. Notes on revisions to Barton Clay stratigraphy. [not seen]

Barton, M.E. and Booth, A.I. 1968. The Barton Clay Cliffs of Hampshire: Preliminary Studies of Stability. University of Southampton, Civil Engineering Department Report, 31/68.

Barton, M.E. and Coles, B.J. 1982. The overall pattern and rates of movement in the undercliffs at Naish Farm, Highcliffe, Hampshire. Progress Report to S.E.R.C. Oct. 1982. University of Southampton.

Barton, M.E. and Coles, B.J. 1984. The characteristics and rates of the various slope degradation processes in the Barton Clay Cliffs of Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, London, 17, 117-136. Abstract: Research is in progress to determine the nature and pattern of the degradation processes in an actively eroding stretch of the Barton Clay cliffs in the Naish Farm area of Highcliffe, Hampshire. In response to loss of beach material the rate of recession has accelerated and is currently averaging 1.9m/year, resulting in steepening of the overall cliff angle from an average of 14 degrees in 1947 to a maximum recorded average of 19 degrees in 1976. The presence of three preferred bedding plane shear surfaces at various elevations within the cliff produce a benched type of cliff profile, comparable with that seen in the Gault and Lias Clay controlled cliffs of Fairy Dell, Dorset but in contrast with published descriptions of London Clay cliffs... The degradation processes include scarp slumping, spalling (including toppling and soil falls), bench sliding (involving movement of colluvium over a preferred bedding plane), debris sliding (including movement of screes over clay scarps), mud sliding (i.e. traditional lobate 'mudflows'), mud runs (true flows), stream (or gully) erosion and man-related processes. Regular surveying and monitoring using a variety of techniques and having to surmount difficult field conditions, has begun to elucidate the characteristics, rates and inter-relationships of these processes. A flow chart representing the systematic transfer of soil from the in situ state via various colluvial modes (including the three bench levels) en route to the sea and an accompanying colluvial soil budget for the year July 1981 to July 1982 has been drawn up. It is shown that bench sliding is by far the most significant process in terms of volume of colluvium moved through the undercliff, accounting for 93 percent of the total volume of colluvium contained in the area. Mud and debris sliding, although important processes, are of relatively minor significance.

Barton, M.E., Coles, B.J. and Tiller, G.R. 1983. A statistical study of the cliff top slumps in part of the Christchurch Bay coastal cliffs. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 8, 409-422. Abstract: A distinction is made between slumping and spalling. Slumping involves a compound slide with rotation and translation: the latter along one of the bedding plane shear surfaces in the Barton Beds. Spalling is an isolated failure of the exposed cliff face due to weathering. Where slumping is the dominant mode of cliff top recession, the latter is an incremental process with the increments being equal to the breadth of the slumps. A statistical study of had been made of the breadth, length and plan area of 42 slumps observed over a 2 km stretch of the Christchurch Bay coastal cliffs and significant trends deduced.

Barton, M.E., Evans, G.J., Yusof, S.B.H. and Kin, Ho Wai. 1991. The in situ density and shearing resistance of Hampshire Basin Plateau Gravels. Pp 415-422 in: Forster, A., Culshaw, M.G., Cripps, J.C., Little, J.A. and Moon, C.F. (eds). 1991. Quaternary Engineering Geology, Geological Society Engineering Geology, Special Publication, No. 7, 724p. [Gravels of Barton - Highcliff coast section].

Barton, M.E., Hillier, S. and Watson, G.V.R. The slip surface in the D Zone of the Barton Clay. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; November 2006; v. 39; no. 4; p. 357-370. Geological Society of London.
Abstract: The most dominant of the preferred bedding plane surfaces of shearing in the Eocene Barton Clay coastal cliffs of the Hampshire Basin is that near the base of the D Zone. This is utilized as the basal surface of compound landslides virtually throughout its 2.3 km outcrop from near the cliff top to beach level, an elevation change of nearly 30 m. The shear zone is located along a thin seam of dark chocolate brown clay, which has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction mineralogical analysis, X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope study of the microfabric and ring shear tests. The dark seam is slightly more clay rich and has a slightly lower value of residual shear strength than the ambient D Zone clay. The reason for its preference during landsliding is discussed. The available evidence suggests that although some previous shear displacement by flexural slip during folding may have occurred, the main displacement results from the lateral rebound response to coastal recession, involving a reorientation of any previous clay particle alignment. Lateral rebound initiates progressive failure, which leads to the compound landsliding of the in situ clay slopes.

Barton, M.E. and Thomson, R.I. 1986. Interceptor Drains for Cliff-tops and above the Crest of Slopes and Cuttings. In: Groundwater in Engineering Geology. The Geological Society, London. 1986. pp. 487-496, 3 tables, 5 figures, 30 references.
Abstract: Three types of interceptor drains are discussed: drains for surface water, cut-off drains in pervious strata overlying a relatively impervious stratum, and vertical drainage wells for draining water into either pervious strata at depth or drains bored in from the slope face. The various difficulties that may impair the ability of the drains to prevent surface or groundwater from reaching an actual or potential landslide can involve geological, geo-hydrological, and constructional conditions. Based on reviews of cases from the literature and direct observations, it is demonstrated that the performance of these drains may often be less than satisfactory, and it is concluded that by their nature, interceptor drains require rigorous site investigation and monitoring before, during, and after construction. It is also pointed out that interceptor drains generally have a negligible influence on rates of equilibration of pore water pressures depressed by unloading in clay soils.

Barton, M.E. and Pearce, R.B. 2015. Landslides and stratigraphy in the coastal outcrop of the the Barton Clay. Review Paper. Proceedings of the Geologists's Association, vol. 126, pp. 731-741.
Geological surveying in soft rock landslide terrain with compound shaped landslides formed by slide prone horizons (SPH) [i.e. shear planes] cannot normally be comprehensive without subsurface investigations: the sharp angled shear surfaces of the compound slides result in the complete deformation of the in situ fabric and prevent exposure of the intact material located just above the SPH. The problem is illustrated with respect to the coastal outcrop of the Barton Clay in its type area in Christchurch Bay, Hampshire, UK. the extensive historical literature is briefly reviewed to show the difficulties experienced by the geologists seeking to give a comprehensive account of the stratigraphic sequence. Recent drilling through the most prominant SPH and a fortuitous exposure revealing details of a higher SPH has allowed detail of the normally obscured part of the sequence to be revealed.


Bates, J., Herbath, Y. and Tresidder, D. 1995. Cliff Erosion in Christchurch Bay. M.Eng. Group Design Project Report, University of Southampton.


Blondeau, A. and Pomerol, C. 1964. Contribution a l'etude sedimentologique de l'Eocene du Kent et du Hampshire. Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Min., 28, 579-584.

Blondeau, A. and Pomerol, C. 1968. Contribution to the sedimentological study of the Palaeogene of England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 79, 441-456.


Bloodworth, K. 1982. Nature chiefs hit at cliff work. Southern Evening Echo, Saturday, August 14, 1982, p. 3. Coast defence works planned at Christchurch Bay between Barton-on-sea and Highcliffe are being opposed by the Nature Conservancy Council. New Forest Council wants to build three rock strongpoints and a road down to the beach at Naish Farm but the NCC says the cliffs should be conserved. Barton's famous fossil-bearing clays and sands from the Eocene age are said to be of international importance as a reference fro a time division in the geological time scale, as well as yielding one of the most important Tertiary faunas in the world. Barton fossils of which there are several hundred varieties [species] are found in museums all over the globe. Some are said to be more than 40 million years old. [continues].


Brampton, A.H. 1998. Cliff conservation and protection: methods and practices to resolve conflicts. Chapter 3, pp. 21-31 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. Edited by Janet Hooke, Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. Paper by Alan H. Brampton, Coastal Group, HR Wallingford, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BA, UK. Abstract: Coastal cliff recession is seen in very different lights by different interest groups. A protection scheme to protect cliff top properties may have a variety of adverse impacts on conservation interests, and on other parts of the coast..Past protection works have stabilized many of the soft cliffs in England and Wales, and many of those that remain are designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest.. Alternatives to 'traditional' defences, such as concrete sea-walls, may offer the option of slowing cliff recession to an acceptable rate, whilst limiting the adverse environmental effects of a scheme. Mitigation works, such as periodic beach nourishment, will also have a role in modern cliff management techniques.. In the future, it may be economically prudent to alter or replace existing cliff protection schemes using such techniques. [This is not specifically on Barton but is a useful paper for neat illustrations of the main sea-defence, engineering methods, such as: sheet piles, gabion baskets, concrete berms, asphaltic revetments, interlocking block revetments, rock revetments, timber groynes, rock groynes, detached breakwaters, sills, timber pallisades, and rock strong points.]


Brander, G. 1766. Fossilia Hantoniensis. This includes the work of Solander, D.C. who described the fossil molluscs. [By Gustavus Brander, a London merchant.]


Bray, M. and Hooke, J. 1998. Geomorphology and management of sites in Poole and Christchurch Bays; in Hooke, J. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation, Geological Society of London. .

Bray, M. and Hooke, J. 1998a. Spatial perspectives in coastal defence and conservation strategies. Pp.115-132 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. [This paper puts forward broad theories and principles but also uses specific examples from Poole Bay, Bournemouth, Hengistbury Head, Christchurch Bay and Hurst Spit.]

Bray, M. and Hooke, J. 1998b. Geomorphology and management sites in Poole and Christchurch Bay. (with contributions by other authors) Pp.233-266 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9.


Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country Around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 116 pp. ISBN 0-11-884377-X. British Geological Survey. Natural Environment Research Council. [This memoir covers the western half of the coast of Christchurch Bay, in addition to the Bournemouth, Poole, Wimborne and Ferndown areas.]


British Geological Survey Map . 1991. 1:50000 Series, England and Wales Sheet 329, Bournemouth. Solid and Drift Geology. Resurveyed on 1:10,000 scale by C.R. Bristow, E.C. Freshney and B.J. Williams in 1984-86. Resurvey largely funded by the Department of the Environment (D.O.E.). See also Memoir by Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1,50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales) B.G.S. London, 116p.( Note division of "Bagshot Sands" into Poole Formation, Branksome Sand Formation and Boscombe Sand Formation.)


British Museum (Natural History). 1975. British Caenozoic Fossils. Fifth Edition. 132 pp, 44 plates, with bibliography. Editions: First Edition - 1960; Second Edition - 1963; Third Edition - 1968; Fourth Edition - 1971; Fifth Edition - 1975. [Many Barton and Headon Hill Formation gastropods and bivalves. This is excellent for identification of the common species.]
Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country Around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 116 pp. ISBN 0-11-884377-X. British Geological Survey. Natural Environment Research Council. [This useful memoir has much information on Highcliffe, Hengistbury Head, in addition to that on various parts of Bournemouth, Poole, Wimborne and Ferndown areas. It is a key reference work.]


Bromhead, E.N. 1979. Factors affecting the transition between various types of mass movement in coastal cliffs consisting largely of overconsolidated clay with special reference to Southern England. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 12, 291-300.

Bromhead, E.N. 1979. Factors affecting the transition between the various types of mass movement in coastal cliffs consisting largely of overconsolidated clay with special reference to Southern England. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, vol.12, pp. 291-300. By Edward Nicholas Bromhead.

Bromhead, E.N. 2013. Reflections on the residual strength of clay soils with special reference to bedding-controlled landslides. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrology. vol. 46, pp. 132-155. By Edward Nicholas Bromhead.
This Glossop Lecture is about landslides and their slip surfaces at residual strength in clays. Particularly in southern England, but also elsewhere, landslides in infrastructure cuttings and many natural slopes are commonly found to be slowly moving compound landslides with a component of their basal shear surfaces following a particular bed (or SPH - 'slide-prone horizon') [SPH - ie. shear planes, see also Barton, M.(Prof. Max Barton) 2015 - 'Landslides and stratigraphy in the coastal outcrop of the Barton clay'. There are SPH - one at the C-D boundary and the other at F1-F2, below the Chama Bed]. A selection of both historical and modern case records of this type of landslide are presented briefly. The geotechnical conditions that give rise to this occurrence are discussed, and the dominant factor relates to the dip of the strata, which must be of low inclination for the landslide mass to remain in place over the critical clay bed in the geological sequence after sliding has been initiated. Observations of the slip surfaces in the field lead to the conclusion that the bedding-controlled elements of this type of landslide develop along thin, slide-prone or slide-susceptible, horizons in the bedding. The question of what caused the formation of those horizons in the first place is answered by putting forward two hypotheses to explain why bedding-controlled slip surfaces form where they do, and considering the evidence for or against each of them. The conclusion is reached that despite the attractiveness of the concept that these slip surfaces form by a progressive failure mechanism at the junction of two materials with dissimilar properties, the alternative concept that they occur where there is a bed of slightly enhanced smectite content better fits the observations. The mechanisms for such local changes in clay mineralogy are linked to inputs of volcanic ash at the time of deposition. Definitive proof of concept is, however, lacking, but taking into account how clay sediments are deposited in sedimentary basins, this paper makes suggestions for future lines of enquiry. Even now, nearly a half-century after Skempton's seminal Rankine Lecture that introduced the concept of residual strength of clays to the wider geotechnical profession, the corpus of data is rather limited. Some of the datasets are shown to exhibit remarkable similarities, and the implications of this tend to support the preferred explanation of the origin of slide-prone horizons.

Bromhead, E.N. and Ibsen, M.L. 2004. Bedding-controlled coastal landslides in Southeast Britain between Axmouth and the Thames Estuary. Landslides, vol. 1, [or is vol. 2?] No. 2, July 2004, pp. 131-141. Journal - Landslides, Publisher Springer Berlin, Heidelberg. ISSN 1612-510X (Print) 1612-5118 (Online).
By Edward N. Bromhead and Maia L. Ibsen
Abstract: The coastline of Southeast Britain is formed in sedimentary rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary age, the majority of these deposits containing thick strata of mudrocks, which have very low angles of dip. Where these strata are appropriately exposed, particularly at the foot of a coastal slope, they give rise to landslides where all or part of the sliding surface follows a single bed of mudrock. Where the dip of the bedding is steep, such landslides are referred to as dip-slope failures. However, landslides where the basal sliding surface is controlled by the location and orientation of a single argillaceous bed in the sequence are better termed bedding-controlled landslides. In addition, where coastal slopes contain several layers of mudrocks, geometrically similar landslides may occur with perched slide surfaces breaking out at a higher level within the slopes. Landslides with strong bedding-controlled basal shear surfaces are the predominant form of instability along the southeast coastline of Britain. Many of the individual landslide cases used in this paper have been studied separately over many years. The general similarity of the different records is discussed, drawing important inferences on a number of aspects of these landslides with a variety of basal sliding surface geometries.

[another version of the abstract, from a different source, follows]

Bromhead, E.N. and Ibsen, M.L. 2004. Bedding-controlled coastal landslides in Southeast Britain between Axmouth and the Thames Estuary. Landslides, vol. 2, pp. 131-141.

Abstract. An overview is presented of the landslide problems experienced in Britain, and their primary causes. Principally, landslides occur in Britain where the strata are argillaceous and there is sufficient topographic relief. This combination occurs in swathes through the southern and central parts of Britain and along the lengthy coastline. In these parts of Britain, the main rock types are sedimentary, and they often exhibit low angles of dip. This gives rise to the occurrence of compound landslides, often with a bedding-controlled flat basal shear surface. Issues relating to this type of landslide are discussed in the article, which concludes with a discussion of the conflicts between interests of land users and the need for conservation, especially in some areas that are of significant interest in the history of the geological and other sciences, and to research in the present day. [go to Springer Link: Progress in Landslide Science, Chapter 2, pp. 13-25. The first page of Chapter 2, is given online in an example webpage.]

Brown, S., Barton, M.E. and Nicholls, R.J. 2012. Human interference on soft cliff retreat: examples from Christchurch Bay. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Geological Society of London, 2012, vol. 45, pp. 395-404. By Dr. Sally Brown, Professor Max Barton and Professor Robert Nicholls. Civil, maritime and Environmental Engineering and Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.
Human interference in soft coastal cliff retreat causes problems worldwide. Building sea defences alters the sediment budget, frequently causing a sediment deficit down-drift resulting in increased retreat rates. Subsequently undefended shorelines become set back from protection works, often causing excessive and unexpected land and infrastructure loss, prompting defence extensions. Down-drift of groynes this is known at the terminal groyne effect. From case studies this paper determines the effects of human interference on soft cliffs, and investigates excessive land loss and likely future coastal responsed. Using 10.5km of soft cliffs in Christchurch Bay, UK as a study region, a historical shoreline analysis from the mid 19th century to the present day was undertaken. Detailed analysis was conducted at three case study sites to determine whether retreat rates had increased downdrift after the construction of protection works. After defence construction, increased retreat occurred at all three sites, albeit for only a few hundred metres down-drift, as propogation was limited owing to a headland or large sediment volumes. Set-backs can lead to artificial head formation, making the coast more challenging and costly to defend. Shoreline management plans advocating protection or realignment should take account of natural features to enhance engineering design and reduce excessive land los.


Brunet, M., Franzen, J.L., Godinot, M., Hooker, J.J., Legendre, S., Schmidt-Kittler, N. and Vianey-Liaud, M. (Coordinators) 1987. European reference levels and correlation tables. Munchner Geowissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen (A), 10, 13-31. [Not seen. Referred to by Edwards and Daley, 1997, p. 36. Brunet et al. related the Totland Bay Member to their Reference-Level MP17.]


Bujak, J.P. 1976. An evolutionary series of Late Eocene dinoflagellate cysts from southern England. Marine Micropalaeontology, 1, 101-117.

Bujak, J.P., Downie, C. Eaton, G.L. and Williams, G.L. 1980. Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs from the Eocene of southern England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, No. 24, 100 pp.

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Burton, E. St. J. - Mr. Edward St. John Burton, of Barton-on-Sea, the Barton Clay fossil collector and specialist (and also a violinist and composer). He was a very enthusiastic and very successful amateur palaeontologist and collector who wrote the key papers on Barton fossils and stratigraphy. He lived in a bungalow above the Barton cliffs at a time when there no sea defences on any scale. I met him once at Bournemouth Natural Science Society. In one of his papers he gave a complete list of Barton Fossils. He also discussed some inland exposures of Barton strata. [his name St. John was pronounced as one word - "Sinjohn" - I asked him about and that is what he said.]

Burton, E. St.J. 1925. The Barton Beds of Barton Cliff. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, (Southampton). Section Transactions C, 312-314.


Burton, E. St.J. 1929. The horizons of Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the Upper Eocene Beds of Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 85, 223-241. By Ernest St.John Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S.
1. Introduction.
This communication is the purpose of describing the horizons on which Bryozoa (Polyzoa) occur in the Upper Eocene Beds (marine clays and sands) of Hampshire. No claim is made to establish special zones with particular species confined to them, but those beds are indicated that contain a relative abundance or defiency of bryozoan remains, within the three broad divisions of the Upper Eocene (Lower, Middle and Upper Barton Beds). .. The geology of this portion of the Hampshire Basin may first be briefly reviewed. The Barton Clay and Barton Sand form part of the well-known Hampshire Syncline, and are exposed at Christchurch Bay, and also at Alum Bay and Whitecliff Bay, in the Isle of Wight. The type-section at Barton Cliffs on the mainland consists of sandy clays in the lower part (50 feet), dark sandy clays and stiff drab clays in the middle part (56 feet), and clayey sands and light-coloured sands in the upper part (96 feet). (Total= 202 feet)."

Burton, E. St.J. 1931. Periodic changes in the position of the Run at Mudeford, near Christchurch, Hants. Proceedings of the Geologists's Association, 42, 157-174. By E. St. John Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S. Received May 17, 1930.
Example extract:
"1. Introduction: The entrance to Christchurch Harbour, in Hampshire, provides an interesting study uf the physiographical conditions of the adjacent coast-line. The sand-and-shingle spit formed across the mouth of the harbour, attracted attention and received comment many years ago, and the neighbourhood has on several occasions been visited by the Geologists' Association, a first Easter Field Meeting having taken place in 1880. The present account constitutes an attempt to investigate some contributory phenomena connected with the Run. This forms the outlet of Christchurch Harbour, and is the mouth of the two rivers; the Stour and the Avon, which below Christchurch Priory (situated upon a tongue of land between the rivers), unite their waters in the final passage to the sea eastward of Mudeford this being one and half miles south-east from Christchurch. The harbour is one mile across at the widest part. The channel known as the Run, where the combined rivers reach the sea, has a width of rather less than 100 yards at highwater mark of ordinary tides opposite the quay at Mudeford. This channel broadens eastward to the extent of 200 yards nearer Cliff End, south-west of Highcliff. It enters open water at a variable point between" Gundimore" (marked on the 6 in. map) and Cliff End. During the ebb-tide, the current attains a velocity of 4. to 5 knots. The apparently anomalous course taken by the Run with respect to the geographical disposition of the land in the vicinity, is rather striking. and it may be expedient to notice such features as constitute interdependent factors in determining relationship with the direction and opening of the Run. It is here inferred that the original entrance of the Stour, and probably of the Avon also, was situated along the northern flank of Hengistbury Head, in the Recent period, when, by the presumably gradual accumulation of a bar of shingle forming an extension towards the north-east, direct egress at this point (Hengistbury Head) became impracticable, and the entrance was by degrees deflected in the direction of Mudeford." [continues]


Burton, E. St. J. 1933. Faunal horizons of the Barton Beds of Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologist's Association, vol. 44, Part 2, pp 131-167. [Classic paper on the fossils of Barton-on-Sea with a large and important faunal list.]
1. Introduction.
This paper describes the precise horizongs of the Upper Eocene species within the three main divisions fof the Barton Beds (Lower, Middle and Upper). A special effort has been made by investigation of the 14 subdivisions composing the Barton Clay and Sand, th ascertain the frequency or rarity of all the specific forms, and to define the horizons at which they occur.
The type section at Christchurch Bay, Hampshire, indicated on the Geological Survey Maps: 'Bournemouth', Sheet 329 [this is a reference to the old edition, there is now a new one which should be seen], and 'Lymington' Sheet 330 [only the old edition is available at present], is selected as eminently suited for such an enquiry.
Gardner, Keeping and Monckton [1, p. 621] state that "the List of Barton fossils comprises 23 Vertebrates, 47 Invertebrates other than Mollusca, 257 Gastropods, and 150 Bivalves, exclusive of 120 undetermined species.
A catalogue of Older Cainozoic fossils from the Isle of Wight has lately been published [2, pp. 340-73], and with more additions made in 1928 [2, pp. 571-9], show a total of more than 200 species collected from the Upper Eocene portion of the Lower Tertiary Beds.
The catalogues also contains notes of additional horizons for species recorded in the earlier Survey Lists [3], and is the most complete that has appeared, having regard to the difficulty of collecting from nearly vertical strata and consequently narrow outcrops.
The faunal list accompanying the present paper is restricted to the records of species, the horizons of which are known to the author, but opportunities for thorough collecting from the Barton Beds may in the future be less advantageous [this is true! - Ian West, 2013], and it is thought advisable to make known the exact horizons where the species are found.
The accuracy of the records may be considered as less equivocal than would be the case if they had been obtained by indirect means. The number of species collected by the author [St. John Burton] is 480: 24 species are new to the Bartonian of England. A substantial increase is made to the list of invertebrates not mollusca, and some additional records of vertebrates (Pisces) are also included. .... [continues]..
[See particularly the long list of fossils on p. 151 to 161. This is too long to reproduce here, but it is a key work on Barton fauna:
[indating VC - very common; C - common; F - frequent; NC - not common; R - rare; VR - very rare.
[The list shows the abundance according, using the above letters, for the following horizons:
Lower Barton - A1, A2, A3, B
Middle Barton - C, D, E, F
Upper Barton - G [the Stone Band], H [Chama Bed], I, J, K.
The list now continues with nine and a half pages of small print. It cannot feasibly be reproduced here and the reader is recommended to obtain the original paper by Burton.

Burton, E. [Ernest St. John] and Curry, D. [Dennis]. 1950. Field Meeting at Barton and Milford-on-Sea, Hants [Hampshire, England], 21st May 1949. Report by the Directors: E. St. John Burton, F.L.S., F.R.S.A., F.G.S. Amer. G.S., and D. Curry, M.A., F.G.S. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, pp. 161-162, vol. 61, part 2, 1950.
[p. 161] A party of about 30 members assembled at the Cliff Cafe, Barton-on-Sea, [the cafe is still there in 2020] and then walked to the cliff edge, where the Directors gave a short account of the geology of the Hampshire Basin with particular reference to the magnificent panorama of the coast and the strata to be studied during that day [the modern sea-defences had not been constructed at that date so the cliffs were seen largely, but not entirely, in their original, still actively eroding, state].
They pointed out that the cliff sections to the west of where they stood had deteriorated seriously in the past 15 years to such an extent that good clear sections of the Middle and Lower Barton Beds, to the east, were now very seldom seen. As a result, the party would concentrate on the exposures of he Upper Barton the Headon Beds to the east which were still in fair condition. This detioration, affecting the the most fossiliferous horizons of this classical type section, was attributed at Barton to the erection of groynes, and the cutting of drainage channels in the cliff, and at Highcliffe, possibly also to the accumulation on the shore of the vast masses of sand and shingle formerly held out to sea by the flow of water draining Christchurch Harbour. This was released to move landwards by the breaching of the bar about 15 years ago [about 1934]. - The party then moved down to the beach, where the upper grey-brown clays of the Middle Barton Beds were fairly well-exposed, overlain by the blue-grey sand clay with abundant Chama squamosa Sol. which forms the base of the Upper Barton Beds. ... [continues to page 162, and with five references. Gardner, Keeping and Monckton, 1881; Chandler, 1932 re Marine Bed at Hordle; Burton, 1929, Bryozoa, Burton and Curry, 1937, Field Meeting at Barton, Hants, Proc. Geol. 48, p. 374-8].

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Carter, R.W.G., Allen, J.R.L., Carr, A.P., Nicholls, R.J. and Orford, J.D. 1991. Coastal sedimentary environments of southern England, south Wales and southeast Ireland. 13th International Sedimentological Congress, Nottingham U.K. 1990, Field Guide, No. 2. 86p.


Chandler, M.E.J. 1922. A recent exposure of the "Marine Bed", Hordle, Hants. Geological Magazine, 59, 224-229.

Chandler, M.E.J. 1922. On Sequoia Couttsiae, Heer. Annals of Botany, vol. 36, p. 385.

Chandler, M.E.J. 1923. The geological history of Stratiotes. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 79, p. 117.

Chandler, M.E.J. 1925-6. The Upper Eocene Flora of Hordle, Hants. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London. By Miss Marjorie E.J. Chandler. 52pp. with an index. [With a large floral list and with eight plates of seeds and fruits].

Extract from the Introduction (p.1) :

"It has long been known that the Lower Headon Beds of Hordle yield fossil plants, and to these passing reference has been made by various authors from time to time. Hitherto, there has been no attempt to study the well-preserved fruits and seeds which constitute so important a part of the fossil record.

Previous Knowledge of the Flora:
The Monograph of the British Eocene Floras by Mr. J. Starkie Gardner was originally intended to include descriptions of the Hordle plants; but unfortunately, his work was never completed, and only the first two parts dealing with the Ferns and Conifers wer published. The Angiosperms, which furnish a wealth of material, have remained unexplored until recent years... [continues]"

Example extract of the general text (p.8):

"The numbers at the bottom of the table show that the Headon flora was closely allied to the living flora of South-Eastern Asia, while there was also a marked relationship with that of East North America. A similar alliance was detected by Mr. and Mrs. Reid in the Pliocene beds already mentioned. In a comparative review of five Pliocene floras (22), Mrs. Reid pointed out that in passing from the older to the newer beds the Chinese-American element was decreasing in importance, though there must once have been a time when the whole vegetation of North-West Europe was of this type. These conclusions of Mrs. Reid are now fully justified by the discovery of the Chinese-American floral in the Upper Eocene.

At the same time, though the dominant relationship is the same in the Eocene and earlier Pliocene, a glance at the respective floral lists shows that very different elements enter into their composition. What, then, are the features which distinguish the Lower Headon and Pliocene floras?

In the first place the older deposit yields no living species - a fact which in view of its antiquity is not surprising, while the Pliocene floras all show some living species, and an increasing number of these as we pass up the geological scale.

In the second place the genera are mostly different in the two cases. In part this may be due to the accidents of fossilization and exploration, but it must largely be the result of changed climatic conditions. On the whole the genera of the Pliocene belong to the mountains of the temperate and warm temperate zones. Those, of the Upper Eocene belong largely to the mountains of the warm temperate and torrid zones (see the floral list, pp. 6, 7), though a few of the plants, e. g. Chrysodium, Nipa, and often Chlorophora, Gordonia and Mastixia, occur at low altitudes in ;the tropics.

The natural inference from the above facts is that between the Upper Eocene and Pliocene the climate of Western Europe cooled, possibly without interruption, to the end of the Tertiary period, causing ever cooler plant associations to supplant warmer, the warmer, by inference from their present habitation, moving southward. It is not yet possible to speak of continuous cooling, for our knowledge, from fossil seeds, of the Oligocene and Miocene floras is scanty, and the older work on leaves is much in need of revision; but the glimpses of the Oligocene floras of Bovey Tracey (16), and of the Samland Amber (10), show that the Chinese-American flora was still dominant.

Two plants with European affinities are worthy of special mention because they are in no sense typical of the modern European flora, which did not seriously invade this continent till a later period. The first genus, Omphalodes, is characteristic of the East Asiatic mountains, and of the mountains of Western North America and Mexico; it also occurs in Europe, where it is practically confined to the southern mountains..."[continues]

Chandler, M.E.J. 1960. Plant Remains of the Hengistbury and Barton Beds. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Geology), 4, (6): pp. 191-238


[Palaeobotanical work by Marjorie Elizabeth Jane Chandler (1897-1983). Marjorie Chandler was a young palaeobotanist from Newnham College, Cambridge, who worked with the palaeobotanists and geologists Eleanor and Clement Reid, who lived at Milford-on-Sea, close to the Barton cliffs. Chandler published much on the local south coast region. She was supported by grants from the Natural History Museum, London.]

Chandler , M.E.J. 1960. [or may be 1961 - exact date of publication uncertain] Plant Remains of the Hengistbury and Barton Beds. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Geology), vol. 4, (1959-1961) No. 6, pp. 191-238, The British Museum (Natural History), London.
Plants are described from the isolated headland of Hengistbury, Hampshire and the Bartonian of Highcliffe and Barton on the mainland. The geology of Hengistbury Head is briefly discussed and alternative suggestions as to the position of these beds with reference to the the Bartonian and pre-Bartonian are summarised, especial mention in this connection being made of Mr. D. Curry's [Dennis Curry's] discovery of Nummulites prestwichianus in the Upper Hengistbury Beds [now regarded as part of the Lower Barton Clay]. The distribution of the plants in the strata and a plant-list are given showing eighteen families, twenty-one genera. Twenty-four species are described. The large number of water plants is noted and the presence of tropical elements in Nipa and Mastixioideae. Almost as many species pass into the Barton or younger beds as are found in the Bournemouth Marine Beds and Highcliff Sands [what does Highcliff Sands mean here? Probably the Boscombe Sands in the modern sense.]
For Bartonian geology use is made of E. St. John Burton's detailed classification of the strata. Earlier records of plants are few but recent discoveries have added much to our knowledge of the Lower Bartonian plants, especially of Horizon A. The plant-list of the whole Bartonian comprises seventeen families, twentyotwo genera. At least twenty-eight species are described. Again a fairly large number of water plants are present and the characteristic tropical families Capparidaceae, Anonaceae, Icacinaceae and Mastixioideae occur. A species of Stratiotes, common in the Bournemouth Marine and Hengistbury Beds, dies out at the top of the Bartonian. The plants alone do not appear at present to throw any light on the relationship of the Hengistbury Beds to the coastal sequence.
[end of abstract]
In the following pages plant remains from two sites in close geographical proximity are described. The specimens are due to the persevering efforts of Mr. D. Curry unless otherwise stated.
The deposits of Hengistbury Head, Hampshire, have been regarded by workers as Auversian or Bartonian.
The Barton Beds of the type section at Highcliff and Barton clifs in the same county on the mainland include the Highcliff Sands [now considered as Bracklesham, Boscombe Sands] of Cliff End near Mudeford, Hampshire (see Table, Chandler, 1960: 8).
The limits of the formation adopted are those given by E. St. John Burton in 1933. The Barton Beds are truely marine and well-documented with a rich fauna. They pass gradulaly upward at Beckton Bunny [Becton Bunny] through transition beds into estuarine and freshwater deposits of the Lower Headon [now part of the Headon Hill Formation] of Hordle Cliff.
[End of Introduction. The text continues with the next section on: 1 The Hengistbury Beds, 1. Geology.]


Chandler, M.E.J. 1961. Flora of the Lower Headon Beds of Hampshire and Isle of Wight. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Geology), 5, 93-157.

Chandler, M.E.J. 1963. Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England, 3. Flora of the Bouremouth Beds, the Boscombe and Highcliff Sands. British Museum (Natural History).

Chandler, M.E.J. 1964. The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England, IV, A Summary and Survey of Findings in the Light of Recent Botanical Observations, British Museum (Natural History), London, 151 pp.

Chandler. [For Headon Beds flora see also Reid and Chandler.]
Channel Coastal Observatory . NOCS, Southampton University.
Large-scale, vertical, aerial photographs of the Wessex Coast (including the Barton and Highcliff coast in particular) are available free for downloading to persons who register with this organisation. A little effort is needed at the start to understand the system and download the appropriate pictures. You will require ER viewer software (available free on the internet) to see the pictures which are in ECW format, but they can afterwards be converted to other formats. They are excellent images and well-worth examining. This is a highly recommended website! The following notes are from the Channel Coastal Observatory website.
"Welcome to the website of the South-East strategic regional coastal monitoring programme. The Channel Coastal Observatory is the data management and regional coordination centre for the Southeast Regional Coastal Monitoring Programme. The programme provides a consistent regional approach to coastal process monitoring, providing information for development of strategic shoreline management plans, coastal defence strategies and operational management of coastal protection and flood defence. The programme is managed on behalf of the Coastal Groups of the Southeast of England and is funded by DEFRA, in partnership with local Authorities of the southeast of England and the Environment Agency. The Channel Coastal Observatory is hosted by New Forest District Council, in partnership with the University of Southampton and the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton."


Chapman, R., Editor. [Bournemouth Natural Science Society]. 2009. The Natural History of Bournemouth and the Surrounding Area. Written by Members of the Bournemouth Natural Science Society. 238 pp. With a Foreword by Chris Packham. Designed and produced for the BNSS by Wessex Books, Salisbury. ISBN 978-1-903035-32-0. See Section 2 Geology - pp. 37-58, by Justin Delair. The general geological features of the area are discussed in summarised form, and the subject matter is mostly material that is familiar to geologists who study the region. However, a special note of interest is a short section on page 49 on "Zeuglodon" or Basilosaurus on p. 49. This is of particular interest because the first bones of the primitive "whale" were found in the Barton Clay by the Dent family (these included Villiers Dent, who owned Barton Court now on the cliff edge at Barton-on-Sea) . The first-found bones are present in the splendid Dent Collection of Barton fossils acquired by Bournemouth Natural Science Society in 1912. Further bones of "Basilosaurus" have been found in recent years, both at Barton and in the New Forest.

Christchurch Borough Council. Undated but post-1993 (probably mid-1990s) . Cliff Stabilization Techniques at Highcliffe: a Student's Guide. 4 pages including figs 1 and 2.

The cliffs at Highcliffe-on-Sea, Christchurch, are naturally eroding boundary between the sea and a vulnerable hinterland, now almost fully devel~ into a retirement and dormitory area. The coast has been steadily retreating in recent geological times, being attacked by three elements, the sea, sub-soil drainage and surface water. In the 1950 s erosion was quoted as being about 175 mm (7 inches) a year on average. In practice, an average figure is misleading, since cliff slips tended to be cyclic, resulting from time to time in large land losses in particular vunerable areas.

The 30 m high cliffs consist almost entirely of the Barton Series of Eocene Clays (laid down 50 m years ago) capped by about 5m of plateau gravels from the more recent ice ages. The clays are not homogeneous and are made up of a large number of different strata, each identifiable by their physical properties or their fossil content. They are readily reduced to soft mud by water from any source and quickly lose all consistency and strength.

A simplified description of the effects of water is shown in figure 1, which can be categorized as follows:

SEA (1) The foot of the cliffs is attacked by wave action, which washes away the residue of cliff slips and removes support for the upper layers.

SEA (2) The lower slopes are kept saturated, especially in the winter, by salt spray from breaking waves.

RAIN (3) Rain falling directly onto the cliffs saturates the clays, causing mud-runs, ponds and deep gullies, all of which accelerate cliff slippage.


(4) Water-bearing strata in the clays, most of which are readily identifiable, lubricate cliff slips and cause the characteristic cross-sectional profile of the cliffs.

(5) Water draining down through the permeable gravel issues at the cliff face, causing ponding on the upper terraces and weakening the clays which support the gravel itself.

The cliff slips tend to be cyclic and there is often a chain reaction, sometimes starting at the bottom, where removal of support leads to the failure of strata above and sometimes starting at the top when the collapse of upper material has a - knock-on - effect down the slopes. In most cases, the presence of water-bearing clay layers modifies the classic deep slip circle tendency of failed clay cliffs and material moves seaward along these - preferred slip planes -. Cliff slips can, therefore, occur independently along any of these planes, although it is unusual for a slip not to affect strata above or below. Other modes of failure are sometimes evident, spalling of the gravel face being one example. [continues]

Christchurch Borough Council, 2007. Coast protection in Christchurch.
Christchurch Borough Council is one of eighty-eight maritime district councils in whom is vested the responsibilities for controlling coastal erosion under the Coast Protection Act 1949.

The Coastal Protection Act is currently administered by the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and is broadly intended to allow coastal authorities to carry out major new or replacement schemes, whilst routine maintenance and general husbandry of the coast is regarded as a non-statutory local function. The Act makes no specific provisions for amenity or conservation works and is confined solely to defence structures. There are however numerous other regulations and European Directives that ensure environmental considerations play a major part in the design and construction of any new scheme or maintenance works.
Management of the Christchurch Coast between Mudeford Sandbank to the West and Chewton Bunny (Highcliffe) to the East is guided by the Poole and Christchurch Bays Shoreline Management Plan (SMP), which was first approved in 1999.
The council administers 10.3km of coast (Plan attached), including a considerable length inside Christchurch Harbour. On the coast outside the harbour, there are 50 groynes, 4km of sea wall, 2km of vulnerable cliffs and 3ha of special salt-tolerant grass sward. The 1990 value of these defences was estimated at 8 million pounds and they protect, conservatively, about 100 million pounds of real estate in the front line.
In front of the formal defences, there are about 4km of beaches, most with a high amenity value and on the defences themselves a heavy concentration of tourist attractions, such as beach huts, cafes, sailing and bathing stations, etc.
It is against this background of necessary defence, coupled with amenity value, that coastal works are conceived and carried out.

The council has issued a Policy Statement (attached) on Flood and Coastal Defence in accordance with DEFRA high level targets.
Following Ministerial Agreement with the Environment Agency, the Local Government Association and the Association of Drainage Authorities, DEFRA published a number of High Level Targets for flood and coastal defence Operating Authorities. The targets were designed to ensure a more certain delivery by Operating Authorities of the Government's policy aims and objectives. The first and primary target (Target 1) required Operating Authorities to produce a policy statement by 31 March 2001 which set out their plans for delivering the Governments policy aims and objectives. All of the targets can be viewed by visiting DEFRA's website.

Coastal Defence Works:
Coastal works are divided broadly into two categories, (i) capital schemes, such as new or replacement sea defences, and (ii) maintenance works, that is, the day-today repairs necessary to keep the defences in good order.
The council completed a 25 year capital programme in 2000, which has effectively stabilised the whole of the Christchurch coastline outside the harbour. Table 1 and 2 attached illustrates the schemes carried out.
Maintenance works are not subject to the Act. They include a wide variety of tasks such as the routine repair of defective groynes, cleaning sea-walls, painting handrails and grass cutting. A major review of this service identified forty substantial routine functions.
Storm damage is often an unplanned extra burden on these programmes. If the damage is small, the maintenance revenue budget absorbs the cost, but in the cost of major catastrophes such as the winter of 1989/90, costs are capitalised and repairs are carried out under the Act.
There is a conscious effort to correlate capital schemes with routine maintenance to optimise both the financial resources, although the wide complexity of tasks and the frequent necessity to absorb storm damage makes this difficult sometimes.

[continues with Funding and with General Strategy]

The Future:

Although the whole of Christchurch's coast is at a reasonable standard and there are no pressing disaster areas, there will always be a need to renew defences as they reach the end of their useful life and this in itself will generate the need for a continued capital commitment.
So far as maintenance is concerned, the optimum level of commitment was reached in 1992/93 and provided this is not eroded in future years, the coast should enjoy a proper degree of professional husbandry.
The Council is engaged with New Forest District Council and the consultant's Halcrow to produce a 50 year Christchurch Bay Coastal Defence Strategy which will form the benchmark for the Second Generation SMP. The Strategy is due for public release in 2006.
The only major cloud on the horizon is the expected rise in mean sea level due to climate change and the 'Greenhouse Effect'. It is widely acknowledged by coastal experts that this will result in two main effects:
(i) A steadily increasing attritional attack on existing defences, and
(ii) a greater risk of extreme events, such as the 1987 hurricane.
In the first case, the best method of defence is to ensure that the coast is maintained in a good state of repair, so that attritional damage can be absorbed as it occurs. In the second cause, damage is likely to be heavy enough to require capitalisation of funding (and therefore grant aided) and there is every reason for coastal authorities to continue to press for Government contingency support.
Climate change is the most serious environmental challenge facing us in the 21st century. Scientists agree that the activities of humans are increasing global warming and changing our climate. In 2002, a new report was released showing four different possibilites of how our climate in the UK might change. The scenarios take into account the possible changes in technology and lifestyle over the next 100 years. Our climate may not change in exactly the same way as predicted in the scenarios, but they give a guide about what we can expect. [continues]

Christchurch Borough Council. 2007. Coast protection in Christchurch - Details and Downloads.
Coast Protection Administrator Tel: 01202 495081 Email: engineering at christchurch.gov.uk Address: Christchurch Borough Council, Engineering Services, Civic Offices Bridge Street, Christchurch Dorset, BH23 1AZ, United Kingdom

Downloads [Go to the website and click for download]:
Coastal Plan (102kb)
Policy Statement (36kb)
Table 1 (7kb)
Table 2 (46kb)
Cliff Stabilization (197kb)
Mining and Engineering Works (202kb)
Beach Nourishment (193kb)
Coast Protection at Highcliffe (265kb)
Rubble Groynes (404kb)
Coastal Vegetation Work (649kb)
Eocene Clays (137kb)
Plan of Coastal Defences (101kb)
Tidal Conditions (326kb)
Evolution of Poole and Christchurch Bays (1311kb)
Mudeford Sandbank Management Plan (446kb)
Zig Zag Geological Report (2175kb)
Chapman Zig Zag Report (63kb)

Clark, M.J., Ricketts, P.J. and Small, R.J. 1976. Barton does not rule the waves. Geographical Magazine, 48, No. 10, 580-588.
Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp.

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Collinson, M.E. 1992. Vegetational and floristic changes around the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in Western and Central Europe. pp.437-450, section No. 22, by Margaret E. Collinson, in the book: Prothero, D.R. (Donald R.) and Berggren W.A (William A.) 1922, Eocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton University Press. See also the paper by Hooker on fossil mammals in the same book.
Northwest Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) and the Weisselster Basin (Germany) yield macrofloral evidence of late Eocene and early Oligocene forest vegetation. This changes from dominantly evergreen subtropical (late Eocene) to mixed evergreen and deciduous with a warm but seasonal climate (early Oligocene). Unfortunately, more precise dating of this transition is not possible. Palynological evidence from these areas and also from Belgium, the Paris Basin (France) and southern England indicates that the transition is marked by incoming of temperate elements; loss of tropical and subtropical elements and an increase in conifer pollen. These changes occur below MP21 mammal level. In the absence of radiometric dates and with limited biological correlation the Eocene/Oligocene boundary cannot be precisely located in any of the areas considered. Southern England and the Paris Basin have the best stratigraphical control and a major peturbation in pollen floras (sudden increase in proportion of temperate forms) in the Paris Basin may be a reflection of the cooling event observed in the marine realm. The marsh and swamp floras in southern England clross the boundary unchangeda and only minor changes are observed in pollen floras at one level, possibly coeval with the event in the Paris Basin. In the context of the extensive sequence of Paleogene macrofloras in southern England the changes described here at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in Europe are seen as the culmination of floristic change, resulting from a cooling climate, which began in the early late Eocene. Palynological evidence from southern England, the Paris Basin and the Massif Armoricain supports this conclusion. Understanding the extent to which any sharp peturbation near the boundary influenced future floral development must await improved stratigraphic resolution and further studies outside the Paris Basin.

Collinson, M.E., Fowler, K. and Boulter, M.E. 1981. Floristic changes indicate a cooling climate in the Eocene of southern England. Nature, London, 291, 315-317.
Abstract: A major climatic cooling at the close of the Eocene (the 'terminal Eocene event') is suggested by studies of leaf floras in North America1; and by oxygen isotope studies, of mollusc shells from the North Sea and of planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the North and South Pacific4. Climatic fluctuations in the French Palaeogene inferred from palynological studies, are difficult to interpret in terms of this single event. The Pacific faunal studies and preliminary palynological evidence from the Isle of Wight, southern England9 indicates an onset of cooling earlier in the Eocene. We have therefore examined fossil floras (fruits, seeds, pollen and spores) from the Palaeogene deposits of the London and Hampshire Basins of southern England which form a continuous sequence from the early Eocene. We find no evidence for a sudden climatic change at the end of the Eocene (taken to be near the base of the Bembridge Marls in the Hampshire Basin). Our evidence, in the form of two major periods of floristic change, suggests a more gradual cooling, commencing in the latest early Eocene.

Collinson, M.E. and Hooker, J.J. 2000. Gnaw marks on Eocene seeds: evidence for early rodent behaviour. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 157, 127-149. Abstract: Gnawed holes in fossil seeds of the freshwater aquatic floating plant Stratiotes, [related to the modern "Water Soldier"] collected from the Solent Group of Late Eocene (Priabonian) age at two localities in the Hampshire Basin, UK, are recognised as the oldest direct evidence of seed predation by rodents. The type of gnawing is similar to that made by Wood Mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, today and a more reliable means of differentiating the resultant pattern from those of other gnawing types is described. By using the size relationship between modern gnaw marks and the rodent incisors that made them, isolated fossil incisors from the same strata at sites near to those where the seeds were found are matched closely to the fossil gnaw marks. By comparison with incisors in situ in jaws from the Continental European Palaeogene, and by eliminating other contenders amongst the known Solent Group rodent fauna, it is concluded that the fossil Stratiotes seeds were predated by the extinct glirids Glamys priscus and Glamys devoogdi. Different patterns of gnaw marks associated with different hole sizes are interpreted as different stages in the opening of the seeds and as demonstrating learning behaviour on the part of the predators. Similarity of fossil astragali (ankle bones) from the Solent Group, identified as Glamys devoogdi, to the recent glirid Eliomys quercinus suggests a scansorial rather than arboreal locomotor mode for the former, in keeping with a ground-level foraging strategy as indicated by the habitat of the Stratiotes plant. The direct evidence of feeding from the fossil seeds and the clear link to the specific predators are an important indication of ancient dietary adaptation independent of that deduced from tooth morphology. It supports the change in dominant frugivorous feeding type amongst European rodents from soft fruit-eating pseudoparamyine paramyids and pseudosciurids in the Middle Eocene to hard seed-eating glirids in the Late Eocene, coincident with the global climatic deterioration shown by oxygen isotopes. One new ichnogenus with one new ichnospecies is erected for one type of gnawing in fossil seeds: Glirotremmorpha entectus gen. et sp. nov., from the English Late Eocene. [The seeds are from the Bembridge Limestone Formation of Gurnard Point, Isle of Wight and from the Totland Bay Member of the Headon Hill Formation of Hordle Cliff. The Isle of Wight specimens show the features more clearly. The paper has good SEM pictures.]
Cooper, J. 1976. British Tertiary Stratigraphical and Rock Terms, Formal and Informal, Additional to Curry, 1958, Lexique Stratigraphique International. Tertiary Research Special Paper, No.1, 37pp. 1 pl.


Costa, L.I., Downie, C. and Eaton, G.L. 1976. Palynostratigraphy of some Eocene sections from the Hampshire Basin (England). Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 87, 273-284.


Crane, P.R. and Plint, G. 1979. Calcified angiosperm roots from the Upper Eocene of southern England. Annals of Botany, 44, 107-122.


Cray, P.E. 1973. Marsupalia, Insectivora, primates, Creodonta and Carnivora from the Headon Beds (Upper Eocene) of southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Geology), 23, 1-102 plus plates 1-6.


Cundy, A.B. 1994. Radionuclide and geochemical studies of recent sediments from the Solent estuarine system. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geology (now School of Ocean and Earth Sciences), University of Southampton. By Andrew B. Cundy. Supervised by Dr. Ian Croudace and Dr. Ian West. [Determines recent sea-level rise of about 4mm per annum, an increase on the usual Holocene figure of about 1 to 2 mm per annum. Radionuclide markers, including those from Chernobyl and Winfrith are found at certain levels in salt marsh sediments of Southampton Water and elsewhere, and can be used for dating.].[Not on Barton, but relevent to sea-level rise.]

Cundy, A.B. and Croudace, I.W. 1995. Sedimentary and geochemical variations in a salt marsh/mud flat environment from the mesotidal Hamble estuary, southern England. Marine Chemistry, 51, 115-132. By Andrew B. Cundy and Ian W. Croudace, Department of Geology (now SOES), Southampton University, Southampton. Abstract: The sediment record in a salt marsh contains valuable information on anthropogenic and natural inputs. The reliability of this record for a single core depends on how representative the sample is for the whole marsh and whether the various indicator elements are immobile. A detailed radiometric and geochemical study has been carried out on a series of salt marsh cores from the Hamble estuary, southern England, a temperate mesotidal estuary. Cores have been taken in two transects to assess cross-marsh variations in sediment accretion, trace element deposition and early diagenesis. From this, conclusions are drawn about variations in sedimentary processes and marsh stability, trace element focusing and the effect of early diagenetic movements on historical pollution records. Sediment accumulation rates across the salt marsh vary between 4 and 8 mm per annum (137 Cs and 210 Pb dating) and are apparently independent of elevation in the marsh. 210 Pb, 137 Cs and anthropomorphic Cu data show that the fronting mud is eroding, which may lead to increased wave attack and erosion at the marsh edge. The salt marsh itself, however, is accumulating at a rate significantly higher than the local rate of mean sea-level rise. The atmospheric deposition record of 210 Pb xs is not well-preserved in the more organic-rich sediment at the rear of the salt marsh. 210 Pb and Pb are apparently mobilised in highly reduced sediments beneath the permanent water table and precipitate in overlying partially reduced sediment with hydrous Mn and Fe oxides. Such diagenetic movement of 210 Pb and Pb is localised and not laterally continuous. At sites showing possible early diagenetic remobilisation of 210 Pb the accuracy of 210 Pb dating is reduced. Remobilisation of 210 Pb does not preclude 210 Pb dating, however, if peaks arising from redox mobility are identified and eliminated by comparison with other geochemical data (Fe, Pb, S, etc). Of the trace elements examined, Cu shows a clear pollution spike. Anthropogenic Cu introduced into the Hamble estuary from the Esso refinery at Fawley, Southampton Water peaked around 1970 and has significantly reduced since 1971. Cu, 210 Pb xs and 137 Cs are focused to some degree at the front end of the marsh due to input of material labelled with these elements which has since been eroded from the surrounding mud flat areas. [End of abstract. Notice particularly the statement on p. 116 "Salt marshes on the central south coast of England (Hampshire and Dorset) are vertically accreting in response to a recent sea-level rise of c. mm per annum (Cundy, 1994).]. [Not on Barton, but relevent to sea-level rise.]

Cundy, A.B. and Croudace, I.W. 1996 Sediment accretion and recent sea-level rise in the Solent, southern England: inferences from radiometric and geochemical studies. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 43 (4), 449-467. [Not on Barton, but relevent to sea-level rise.]
Curry, D. - the late Professor Dennis Curry, the well-known, specialist on Eocene palaeontology and stratigraphy. He was a distinguished amateur geologist and researcher whose career involved running the Curry's stores. He was much involved with the Geologists' Association. He wrote many papers on the geology of the Tertiary strata of the Hampshire Basin and elsewhere.

Curry, D. 1937. The English Bartonian nummulites. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 48, 229-246.

Curry, D. 1958. Palaeogene. Lexique Stratigraphique International, Europe, 3aXII, 3-82.

Curry, D. 1965. The Palaeogene Beds of south-east England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 76 (2), 151-174.

Curry, D. 1966. Problems of correlation in the Anglo-Paris-Belgian Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 77 (4), 437-467.

Curry, D. 1977. The age of the Hengistbury Beds (Eocene) and its significance for the structure of the area around Christchurch, Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 87, Part 4, 401-408. By the late Dennis Curry.
Abstract: Further evidence is adduced for correlating the Hengistbury Beds with the lower part of the Barton Beds (Upper Eocene, Hampshire Basin, England). The palaeontological evidence for the age of the Hengistbury Beds is reviewed and, although much of this is inconclusive, several elements are considered to indicate definitely a Lower Barton and not a Bracklesham age. The palaeoecology of the Hengistbury Beds is discussed and their apparently anomalous location is ascribed to the action of a fold system en echelon with the Bouldnor and Thorness synclines and the Porchfield anticline to the east. This whole group of folds is tentatively interpreted as a drag phenomenon associated with left-lateral movement along the line of the Purbeck-Isle of Wight tectonic disturbance. [end of abstract]
1. Introduction
2. Faunal evidence of the age of the hengistbury beds
3. Lithological evidence in the cliff sections for correlation, and the nummulitic horizons.
4. The ecology of the hengistbury beds
5. Stratigraphical evidence inland
6. Structure
1. Introduction:
The age of the Hengistbury Beds has long been disputed. According to Prestwich (1849) they are of the same age as the lower part of the Barton Beds and the pebble beds in the cliffs at Hengistbury (SZ 175905) and Cliff End (SZ 197928), Highcliffe represent the same horizon. Gardner (1879, 212) however thought that the general easterly dip visible in the Hengistbury Head sequence continued across the Stour - Avon estuary to Cliff End and as a result decided that the pebble bed at Hengistbury was at a level some 40-50 m below that at Cliff End. As the base of the Barton Beds was defined by Fisher (1862) to occur above the pebble bed at Cliff End, Gardner relegated the Hengistbury sequence to well down in the Bracklesham Beds. A recent article by Hooker (1975) gives a comprehensive account of work published to that date and adds details of the author's recent personal investigations. The publication of this account and of a paper by Costa, Downie and Eaton (1976) makes it appropriate to publish further evidence on this long disputed question and to draw some conclusions in relation to the structure of beds in the Bournemouth-Milford area. [continues]

Curry, D., Adams, C.G., Boulter, M.C., Dilley, F.C., Eames, F.E., Funnel, B.M. and Wells, M.K. A correlation of Tertiary rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society, London, Special Report No. 12, 72pp. Abstract: This paper discusses the correlation of the Tertiary sequences of the British Isle and surroundings seas and relates them to the some important Tertiary successions of Continental Europe. In a total of five correlation tables the sections considered are related to internationally recognised biozonal schemes, to the standard chronostratigraphical scale and to a numerical time-scale. The paper includes sections on methodology and on problems of Tertiary chronostratigraphic nomenclature.

Curry, D. Gulinck, M. and Pomerol, C. 1969. Le Paleocene et l'Eocene dans les Bassins de Paris, de Belgique et d'Angleterre. Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Min., 69, 361-369.

Curry, D. and Wisden, D.E. 1958. Geology of Some British Coastal Areas; the Southampton District including Barton (Hampshire) and Bracklesham (Sussex) coastal sections. Geologists' Association, London, Excursion Guide No. 14, 16 pp.


Dale, W. 1914. Archaeology of West Hants. Pp15-30 in: Morris, D. (editor) 1914. A Natural History of Bournemouth and District, including Archaeology, Topography, Municipal Government, Climate, Education, Fauna, Flora and Geology. Bournmouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth, 400pp. Sold by Horace G. Commin, 100, Commercial Road, Bournemouth and Bright's Stores Ltd., The Arcade, Bournemouth. By the members of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, edited by Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G, J.P., M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.H.S., President, Natural Science Society. [This paper contains some historic information of coast erosion at Highcliffe Castle.]


Daley, B. 1998. The importance of coastal sites in Palaeogene conservation, exemplified by the succession in Christchurch Bay. Pp. 211-232 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9.

Daley, B. and Insole, A.N. 1979. Lithostratigraphical nomenclature of the English Palaeogene succession. Geological Magazine, 116, 65-67.
Dance, S.P. 1992 (reprinted 1995). Shells. Eyewitness Handbooks. Dorling Kindersley, London, New York, Stutgart. 256pp. Photography by Matthew Ward. This is an extremely well-illustrated and informative book on modern bivalves and gastropods etc. It is by S. Peter Dance, one of the world's leading shell experts, and a natural history author. He has worked in museums, including the Natural History Museum and has written seventeen books. This book is recommended for anyone wanting to identify modern shells, or to look for modern comparisons with fossil shells.


Davies, A.M. 1934-5. Tertiary Faunas. Thomas Murby, London. Vol. 1 (1935), 406 pp., Vol. 2 (1934), 252 pp.

Davies, A.M. 1975. Tertiary Faunas, Vol. 2: The Sequence of Tertiary Faunas. (Revised by F.E. Eames and R.J.G. Savage.) George Allen and Unwin, London, 447 pp.
Davison, M., Currie, I. and Ogley, B. 1993. The Hampshire and Isle of Wight Weather Book. Froglets Publications and Frosted Earth, Froglets Publications Ltd., Brasted Chart, Westerham, Kent, TN16 1LY. Paperback, 168pp. By Mark Davison, Ian Currie and Bob Ogley. With numerous good monochrome photographs, many of them old and of historic interest.
"Everybody is fascinated by the ever-changing moods of the weather and the patterns of the sky. Our climate is a perpetual talking point, particularly in the days of great floods and freezes, tempests and tornadoes, droughts, hailstones and heatwaves. In recent years, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight have experienced all these variations. The sheer intensity of rain has turned quiet rivers into raging torrents, a clash of air masses has led to a spectacular snowstorm, global warming has been blamed for the longest drought in history, tidal waves, 20 feet high, have pounded the coast, a jet aeroplane has aquaplaned onto a motorway and opposing air streams have twice brought hurricane-force winds to change the face of the landscape. There has been more - much more - and in this unique pictorial record of the weather in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, we have the evidence."
Delair, J.B. 1999. The earliest illustrations of Barton fossil "shells". Proceedings of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, vol. 67, part 2, pp. 48-55. By Justin Delair.

Delair, J.B. 2007. Unpublished typescript. Early Fossil Collecting Along Christchurch Bay's Coastline, S. Hampshire. By Justin B. Delair. No abstract. [This contains information on local coast erosion in addition to a record of early fossil collecting. There is a good reference list, including many relatively obscure publications.]
Demassieux, N. 2007? (undated but recent). Paleontologie Coquilles du Tertiaire francais :: eocene - miocene - Bassin Parisien - Sud-Ouest - Touraine - Bretagne. [Palaeontology of the shells of the French Tertiary - Paris Basin - Southwest - Touraine - Britanny]. By Nicholas Demassieux. [An excellent website for images of Tertiary fossils and very useful with regard to the shells of the British Barton and Hordle Cliffs. This is a very systematically organised website with search facilities. Recommended.]


Denizot, G. 1968. Bartonien, Ludien et Tongrien. Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Min., 58, 532-552.


Duff, K.L. 1982. Barton-on-Sea Cliffs SSSI, Hampshire. Typescript document from the Nature Conservancy Council with map showing proposed Phase 1 works at Naish Farm with three strongpoints, rockfill revetment, access track and beach renourishment scheme along the whole of the remaining good exposure of the Barton Clay. Extract from letter: "This is one of the only two undefended stetches of cliff which remain within the SSSI, and exposes sediments from Bed A2 to about Bed J; its loss would severely diminish the scientific importance of the site. It is often more popularly known as the "Naish Farm Section"... It is unclear whether the ultimate intent is to produce a cliff-line which resembles that created by Christchurch Borough Council to the west of Chewton Bunny, although such a scheme must undoubtedly hold great attraction for the engineers."
Dunn, R. E. 2007. Climatically induced floral change across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the John Day and Clarno formations, eastern Oregon. By Regan E. Dunn, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, National Park Service, 32651 Highway 19, Kimberly, OR 97848, regan-dunn@nps.gov.
The Eocene-Oligocene transition marks a major cooling event in Earth history. Effects of this cooling event are well-documented in North American fossil floras where largely paratropical forests of the Eocene were replaced with mixed mesophytic forests by the early Oligocene. While ?? 18O values of marine benthic foraminiferans show a pronounced increase around 33.5 Ma, fossil floras from the Clarno and John Day Formations in eastern Oregon indicate gradually decreasing mean annual temperature (MAT) values beginning around 40 Ma. Through leaf margin analysis, it is estimated that MAT values decreased approximately 10 degrees C from 44 to 33 Ma. Along with the decline in temperature, is a marked decrease in floral diversity, especially in the earliest Oligocene Bridge Creek Flora. Taken as a whole, the Bridge Creek Flora appears to be moderately diverse with the occurrence of least 125 species (Meyer and Manchester, 1997). This level of diversity represents the entire Bridge Creek assemblage which is a compilation of taxa found at seven spatially and temporally separated localities. When the Bridge Creek Flora is quantitatively sampled from discrete intervals from individual localities and compared to identically sampled middle Eocene Clarno Formation leaf assemblages, a drastic drop in floral richness from 44 Ma to 33 Ma is indicated.
[Not on the Barton strata of England, but of relevance because of a similarity in age, and also evidence of cooling in the British Eocene - see Collinson et al.]


Echo Staff Reporter. 1973. Let Cliffs Crumble Nature Conservancy Demand. Southern Evening Echo, 20th July, 1973.

Echo Staff Reporter (Keith Bloodworth). 1974. Erosion Threat to Sea Defence Work. Southern Evening Echo, 1st May, 1974. [substantial article]

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. New Falls: Cliff House on Brink. Southern Evening Echo, 19th April, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Sightseers Warned of Crumbling Cliffs. Southern Evening Echo, Newspaper, 23rd April, 1975. "An appeal to the public to keep away from the crumbling cliffs at Barton-on-Sea where a house stands perilously only two feet from the edge and others are threatened, came yesterday from New Forest District Council. Hundreds of people have visited Barton since the cliffs began falling last Thursday and yesterday the council's chief executive, Mr Peter Bassett warned that the cliffs are dangerous and that they could accept no responsibility. Sightseers, he said, were adding to their problems. The council's Amenities Committee called for a report on the possible demolition of Mr. Jack Murrell's £40,000 home, Manor Lodge, perched above a 70 ft. drop. Principal engineer, Mr Frank Harris, said people living on the cliff top had been warned a few months ago of increasing danger to their properties. He said that dangerous structure notices had been served on Manor Lodge and the new dining room extension of the Ventana Hotel next door. Barton Court which was divided into five flats, was not imminently threatened. Mr. Harris said that the cliff fall was unfortunate but not unexpected. In 1960 Sir William Halcrow and Partners, the council's consulting engineers, had said that in the long term the buildings could not be saved. Mr H. E. Stopher, Lymington's former borough engineer, had stated that in spite of holding the undercliff stationary the cliff would gradually move until it reached its natural angle of repose. The engineer said that last week's fall was confined to the top. There was no suspicion of movement in the undercliff. He said that there was nothing that they could do about the cliffs. They were pushing soil against the cliff to decrease the amount of vertical face. Mr. Harris said that it was impossible to stop people going to the cliffs over the weekend. Large notices warning of the danger were to be erected. The chief executive denied that vibrations from machinery engaged on undercliff stabilisation had anything to do with the fall." [end of article].

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Family Lose Home in Cliff Fall. Southern Evening Echo, 18th April, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Cliff Works Decision is Deferred, 17th June, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. MP to Act over Home Insurance. Southern Evening Echo, 1st August, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Cliff-Peril House to be Pulled Down. Southern Evening Echo, 24th October, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Dream Cafe - on the Edge of Disaster. Southern Evening Echo, 18th June, 1975.

Echo Staff Reporter. 1975. Erosion Plan Supported. Southern Evening Echo, 2nd July, 1975.

EC LIFE Preparatory Action Programme: 1998-2001? Coastal Change, Climate and Instability. Isle of Wight Council, UK. (Research programme in progress, not as yet a completed report). The Project "Coastal Change, Climate and Instability" submitted by the Isle of Wight Council and partners, forms one of a number of " Preparatory Action" projects approved by the European Commission as of the LIFE Environment Programme within DG XI. This three year international project (currently in its second year, in 1999) brings together acknowledged experts in the fields of coastal, geotechnical and archaeological studies to undertake research on three linked elements in the fields of coastal change and climate change. The three elements of the project (summarised here) are as follows: 1. Using archaeological evidence to predict the nature, scale and pace of coastal change; 2. Relationship between rainfall, groundwater, erosion and ground movements to develop a more reliable methodology for landslide forcasting and risk assessment in developed coastal and mountainous areas; 3. To develop risk assessment advice and a code of practice for decision makers and other groups concerned with urban landslide areas. Overall, the aim of the project is to examine how predicted climate change may affect unstable coastal and mountainous areas and to assist in preparing for such changes. ---- A geotechnical part of this project is based in areas of coastal instability on the Isle of Wight (the Ventnor Undercliff and Afton Down), at Lyme Regis in Dorset (urban part?) , Barton-on-Sea in Hampshire, Overstrand in Norfolk, and Scarborough, Robin Hood's Bay and Runswick Bay in North Yorkshire. This study is through the Isle of Wight Council - Centre for the Coastal Environment and their consultants High-Point Rendel. ---- For further information contact: Robin G. McInnes, I.O.W. Coastal Manager, Jenny Jakeways - Project Officer, Isle of Wight Centre for the Coastal Environment, Directorate of Development, County Hall, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 1UD, Tel. 01983-823702, Email - life2@iwight.gov.uk or rgmcinnes@iwight.gov.uk


Edwards, F.E. (continued by Wood, S.V.). 1849-1877. A Monograph of the Eocene Cephalopoda and Univalves of England. Vol. 1 [not completed], Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.

Edwards, N. 1970. The Hasting Collection (fossil vertebrates): history of additions made by the Marchioness of Hastings between 1845-1851 from the Upper Eocene Beds at Hordle Cliff, Hampshire. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 5, 340-343.

Edwards, N. 1967. Oligocene Studies in Hampshire Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Reading University, UK.

Edwards, N. 1971. Report of field meeting to Milford-on-Sea, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, 1, 50-52.

Edwards, N. and Daley, B. 1997. Stratigraphy of the Totland Bay Member (Headon Hill Formation, Late Eocene) at Hordle Cliff, Hampshire, Southern England. Tertiary Research, 18, 35-50. Abstract: The coastal exposure of the Totland Bay Member of the Headon Hill Formation at Hordle Cliff, Hampshire, is the most important Late Eocene plant- and vertebrate- fossil locality in England. The c.25m succession comprises unlithified blue-grey to green muds, grey muddy silts and fine to medium sands. The major stratigraphic descriptions, published during the nineteenth century, were based on unspecified exposures in a part of the outcrop which is now largely concealed by talus and beach. Sections in specified existing exposures, described in the present paper, reveal a generally similar succession, although with some differences in bed thicknesses and lithologies. [End of abstract. Tertiary Research is published in Leiden. Address of the authors: Department of Geology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3QL, UK. The 15 page paper has one locality map, 12 text figures of clear, large graphic logs and a text with details of individual beds, including fossil content and notes regarding previous references. There are 34 references and no photographs. This is a key paper for details of the cliff section.]

Edwards, N. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Lithostratigraphical classification of the Hampshire Basin Palaeogene deposits (Reading to Headon Formations). Tertiary Research, 8, 43-73.


Edwards-Milne and Haime. 1850. British Fossil Corals. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society. [Solitary corals occur in the Barton Clay. See p. 20, 40].


Everard, C.E. 1954. The Solent River: a geomorphological study. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20, 41-58. [Origin of Pleistocene river gravels in the cliffs at Barton etc. Solent River terraces.]

Farey, J. 1815. An alphabetical arrangement of the places from whence fossil shells have been obtained by Mr. James Sowerby, and drawn and described in vol. 1 of his "Mineral Conchology"; with the geographical and stratigraphical situations of those places, and a list of their several fossil shells, etc., Philosophical Magazine, vol. 46, pp. 211-224.
Few, R., Brown, K. and Tompkins, E.L. 2004. Scaling Adaption: Climate Change Response and Coastal Management in the the UK. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Working Paper No. 60, 19pp. October 2004. By Dr. Roger Few, Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia; Professor Katrina Brown, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia; and Dr. Emma L. Tomkins, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ. This paper has been submitted to Environment and Planning A in September 2004. [This paper discusses the future prospects of Christchurch Bay, Barton-on-Sea, Christchurch Harbour, Mudeford, Hengistbury Head etc. in term of coast erosion and flooding in relation to rising sea-level. It is available online and has a good reference list.]
The focus of this paper is on scale dilemmas in environmental decision-making, particularly those dilemmas posed in space and time by the challenges of societal adaptation to climate change impacts. The analysis draws insights from a case study of strategic coastal management and decision-making at Christchurch Bay in southern England, where communities face long term threats of increased coastal erosion and coastal flooding. In terms of spatial scale, the paper exposes a mismatch between the broad geographical scale at which strategic planning takes place in the UK and the narrower spatial scale of decision-making on coastal management interventions. In terms of temporal scale, it finds that the time horizons of coastal planning are generally too short to mandate consideration of climate change impacts. Both sets of scale issues inhibit anticipatory response capacity of institutions, and the barriers to adaptation are particularly evident at the local decision-making scale in the context of local political, financial and technical constraints. Together, they point to a 'problem of fit' between the climate change threat and local capacity to take advance action to address that threat, under conditions of long term change and scientific uncertainty. [end of summary].

Example extract:
"Since, as noted, predictions of climate change and associated impacts fall into an 'envelope of possibilities'., we do not attempt to offer here a meaningful numerical estimate of population at risk from flooding and coast erosion within the Christchurch Bay area. However, it is feasible instead to identify stakeholder groups whose interests may be placed at risk. At Barton-on-Sea, more than 15 properties stand adjacent to the cliff edge and continuing clifftop recession means they 'will probably be lost in the next 20 years' (NFDC, 1997). Behind them stands a 1850m long frontage of continuous residential development, which may be at physical risk after several decades. The unprotected sections flanking the town will steadily be eroded, with loss of land and structures. At Christchurch Harbour, hundreds of properties are potentially vulnerable to tidal and/or riverine flooding include those running along the northern harbour shore and Mudeford Sandbank, and those in low-lying land at Christchurch and neighbouring centres." [read the full paper to understand this extract in context.]


Fiest-Castel, M. 1977. Evolution of the charophyte floras in the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene of the Isle of Wight. Palaeontology, 20, 143-157.


Fisher, O. 1862. On the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight Basin. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 18, 263-285. [Classic paper by the Reverend Osmond Fisher, F.C.P.S., F.G.S., Fellow and Tutor of Jesus College, Cambridge. The paper contains a description of Bracklesham strata at western Highcliffe and a cliff section. The pebble bed and nummulite bed etc is discussed - see page 86 et seq.]

Fisher, O. 1882. On the strata of Colwell Bay, Headon Hill and Hordwell Cliff. Geological Magazine (Series 2, Decade 2), 9, 138-140.


Forbes, E. 1852. Monograph of the Echinodermata of the British Tertiaries. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society.

Forbes, E. 1856. On the Tertiary Fluvio-Marine Formation of the Isle of Wight. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. By Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S. etc. 162pp. plus plates. [This classic work is on Isle of Wight geology with little mention of the mainland, but discussing the Headon Hill Formation etc which also occurs at Hordle Cliff.]


Fort, D.S., Clark, A.R. and Cliffe, D.G. 2000. The Investigation and Monitoring of Coastal Landslides at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, UK. In: Landslides in Research, Theory and Practice, Thomas Telford. ISBN: 9780727736482. Re the book - Landslides in Research etc.. This valuable three volume set of publications contains vital information from throughout the world on landslide and slope instability problems. Every four years the worlds leading scientists and engineers dealing with landslides, have the opportunity to meet up and engage in the exchange of ideas and experiences at a symposium run under the auspices of ISSMGE Technical Committee 11. These volumes, taken from the 8th symposium in the series, detail investigations into landslide causes, mechanisms and hazards, together with accounts of monitoring and mapping.


Fowler, K., Edwards, N. and Brett, D.W. 1973. In situ coniferous (Taxodiaceous) tree remains in the Upper Eocene of southern England. Palaeontology, 16, 205-217. Abstract: Coniferous tree stumps and roots attributable on evidence of wood anatomy to the form-genus Glyptostroboxylon Conwentz occur in Upper Bartonian (Upper Eocene) strata at two localities in the Hampshire Basin, southern England. They are the first trees found in growth position in the English Lower Tertiary. Evidence that they grew in a flooded or waterlogged habitat is given by the mode of fossilization and characteristics of the associated flora. The fossil wood morphology and wood anatomy resembles that of certain living Taxodiaceae, especially Glyptostrobus and Taxodium, themselves inhabitants of waterlogged and flooded terrain. Taxodium type pollen occurs with the roots, but associated foliage and cones are attributable to Sequoia couttsiae Heer. These taxodiaceous macrofossil remains may represent a single species with the characters of more than one living genus. Similar instances are known from Tertiary deposits elsewhere.

Fort, D.S., Clark, A.R. and Cliffe, D.G. 2000. The Investigation and Monitoring of Coastal Landslides at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, UK. pp. 567-572 in Bromhead, E., Dixon, N. and Ibsen, M-L. 2000. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Landslides held at Cardiff on 26-30 June, 2000. Authors are on the staff of High-Point Rendel, London UK. No abstract given. [discussion of increasing pore pressure in the stretch near Hoskins Gap and Cliff House. Much monitoring by instruments]
Extract from the Conclusions:
Ground investigation information suggests that, although coastal erosion has largely been arrested by the construction of coastal defences, pore water pressures are now recovering which, unless remedial is taken, will result in the progressive reduction f the factors of safety of deep seated failure mechanisms possibly resulting in further failures in the future.


Fox, W.D. 1862. When and how was the Isle of Wight separated from the mainland. Geologist, 5, 452. [Short original contribution on the Solent River by the Reverend Fox.]


Feuillee, P. 1964. Historique de l'utilisation du terme 'Bartonien' dans le Bassin de Paris. Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Minier., No. 28, 37-46.
French, P.W. 2001. Coastal Defences. Routledge Press.


Freshney, E.C., Bristow, C.R. and Williams, B.J. 1984. Geology of Sheet SZ 19 (Hurn Christchurch); Part of 1:50,000 sheet 329 (Bournemouth). Geological Report for DOE: Land Use Planning. (Exeter: British Geological Survey). Natural Environment Research Council, British Geological Survey. [This report gives details of the Christchurch borehole which failed to prove Hengistbury Beds with ironstone beneath the base of the Bartons.]


Gardner, J.S. 1879. Description and correlation of the Bournemouth Beds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 35, part 2, p. 211-?. [by J. Starkie Gardner].

Gardner, J.S. 1879-1886. British Eocene Flora. Vols. 1 and 2. [Not seen, but probably mostly on the plants of the Bournemouth strata.]

Gardner, J.S., Keeping, H. and Monckton, H.W. 1888. The Upper Eocene, comprising the Barton and Upper Bagshot Formations. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 44, 578-635. [For Barton see particularly pp. 580, 583-4, 587-591, 594, 601, 620-633].

Gardner, J.S. 1880. Excursion to the Hampshire Coast. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, vol. 6, no. 7, July, 1880, pp. 316-320. Journal edited by J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S., University College, London. Price 1s, 6d.

This field report is of some interest particularly with regard to the cliffs of Bournemouth, which were then exposing good plant fossils, and also in relation to Hengistbury Head, Barton and eastwards. It has no diagrams but the text is reproduced in full, below:



Director :J. STARKIE GARDNER, Esq., F.G.S.
(Report by Mr. GARDNER.)

The head-quarters of the Association were fixed at Bournemouth, and Members not arriving until Monday were indebted to Mr. Swain for procuring rooms, etc. A large number arrived during the previous week, and were able to explore the Fresh-water series to the west of Bournemouth, which could not be visited on the Monday or Tuesday. An excavation opened a few days previously by Professor Morris, Dr. Hy. Woodward, Prof. Corfield and Mr. Birch, yielding fine leaves, was visited by Dr. John Evans, Prof. McKenny Hughes, Mr. Warrington Smyth, Prof. Bonney, and many Members of the Association. .

First Day .- The Members and visitors, between 60 and 70 in number, met together at Bournemouth pier and proceeded along the shore towards Boscombe. On the way the Director pointed out the position of the Bournemouth series in the Eocene formation, and the chief geological features of the coast. Far to the west, and close to Poole harbour, could be seen the cliffs which contain a rich dicotyledonous flora, shed apparently from forest trees which clothed the hilly slopes of the right bank of the Eocene river. This flora, or rather series of floras, differ remarkably from those found nearer towards Bournemouth, especially in the hitherto total absence of remains of palm. The central ranges of cliffs are almost unfossiliferous, and from their confused bedding are conjectured to present a transverse section of the silting up of the old river channel. From the pier for nearly a mile, the eastern series of leaf-beds extends, containing the remains of a very much more tropical-looking flora, probably derived from the low-lying shores of the left bank of the river. Among the palms, which are very abundant, such genera as Phoenix, Calamus, Iriartea, Sabal, etc., are conspicuous, and among the ferns, some scarcely differing from such magnificently tropical forms as 0smunda javanica and Chrysodium aureum, Gleichenia dichotoma, Lygodim dichotomum, etc. Beyond these cliffs, skirting the nearly vertical Chalk downs, are the Lower Bagshot Beds, in which the well-known leaf-beds of Alum and Studland Bays are situated, invisible on Monday through the haze, and beneath these the Lower Tertiaries. Only the upper part of the Bournemouth Fresh-water series which are estimated to be 400 ft. thick, was actually passed on Monday. The broken angulated blocks, imbedded in sand, whence come Aroids and a representative of Araucaria Cunninghami, not met with higher in the series, were pointed out. Within a few hundred yards the Freshwater series, with its white clays, sharp quartzose sands, and entire absence of flint, became replaced by the Marine series. Owing to the absence of any slips, and the consequent inaccessibility of most of the beds, few fossils could be obtained, although indistinct leaf impressions of the reticulated fern-fronds, which immediately underlie the marine beds, were seen. The passage of Marine to Fresh-water beds at this point was pointed out. The marine beds are stiff liver-coloured clays, becoming black on exposure to the air, containing casts of several genera of Bryozoa and Crustacea, and greenish sandy clay with casts of Bracklesham molluscs. They are highly charged with lignitic matter, and contain in places very perfect fruits, and much teredo-bored wood. Overlying them are the clean white sands, with flint shingle-beds of the Boscombe series, and above these are thick capping of angular Quaternary gravel. The Eocene shingle beds consist of perfectly rounded flints, showing the existence, at the time they were deposited, of a heavy surf. In many cases the condition of the silex is changed, and appears a soft, chalk-like mass. Pebbles are met with in every stage of the change, whol1y converted, with black flint nucleus, half converted, or merely with a thickened white coat. The process and nature of the change gave rise to much discussion. The party were here met by Dr. Allman, President of the Linnrean Society, and Mr. Pike, owner of the vast china-clay pits near Corfe Castle. Nearing Boscombe, the positions of the various fruit-beds were pointed out, and the curious tubular borings of annelids fil1ed with horizontally-arranged lignitic matter or with fine sand, which, in places riddle the dark clays. At the corner of Boscombe Chine, instances of the denuding power of wind were seen, and in the extraordinary Honeycombe Chines, that of springs in rapidly excavating deep cirques in the soft strata. The zone of Nipadites was well seen, the empty husks floated out to sea, and now filled with sand, being in places crowded together. At another spot fragments of proteaceous or myricaceous leaves were found.

The party then proceeded somewhat rapidly to Hengistbury Head, a distance of about four miles. On the way it became apparent that, as the Fresh-water beds present a transverse section across a vast river-channel, so the Marine beds present a section through a great Eocene beach or sandbank, behind which lay a stagnant lagoon. The shingle in them became larger and larger towards the east, their well-rolled appearance indicating the distance they had travelled. Attention was called to their resemblance to the so-called Upper Bagshots of the London Basin.

The principal features of the Head-land itself were fully described in the "Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society" for May, 1879, p. 213, and tbe divisions were clearly made out. Having skirted it along the shore, the party mounted to the top over the debris is of the old quarries, and after enjoying the magnificent view, quickly made their way through the heather, past the prebistoric double ramparts and ditch, to the ferry over the Stour and Avon, and thence to Christchurch. Mr. George H. Birch, F.R.S., B.A., who bad travelled from London for the purpose, gave, in the failing light, an able and only too brief sketch of the history of the ancient and striking Priory Church. The Members then returned by rail to Bournemouth, and dined together at the Criterion Restaurant.

Second Day (Tuesday.) - The party proceeded by rail to Christchurch, when the fine Norman house attracted attention, and the church was again examined while waiting for conveyances. The different building stones used were pointed out by Mr. Birch, these included Hengistbury ironstone for the foundations, and Bembridge, Binstead, Headon, Portland, Purbeck and Caen limestones for the edifice. The Members then drove to Mudeford, and thence found their way along the base of the cliffs to Highcliff. The new channel recently created by the Stour and Avon for a mile along the base of these cliffs caused much surprise when the rapidity with which it had been formed became known. The thin Nummulite bed, which is considered by the Rev. O. Fisher to divide the Bracklesham and Barton Series, could not be found in the short time at disposal, owing to the cliff under Highcliff Castle having been sloped and drained. The main features of the coast were, however, pointed out, the sequence of the beds from Hengistbury to Highcliff, the Barton Clays and Sands, the Upper Bagshots and Headon Beds of Hordle. During the short halt for lunch, Prof. Morris favoured a number of the party with an eloquent address, in which he clearly pointed out the sequence and chief characteristics of the beds and their correlation with the Eocenes of Europe, and briefly sketched, in eulogistic terms, the work of those whose labours have made it possible to trace the history of their deposition.

Dr. Henry Woodward and Prof. Bonney and the Director, having also made a few remarks, the party dispersed to collect the well-known Barton shells, which usual1y lay exposed in thousands upon the slopes of the cliffs, and notwithstanding the dryness of the weather being unfavourable, many beautiful specimens of the characteristic shells and teeth were obtained. Beyond Chuton Bunny most of the party again came together. Owing, however, to the shingly character of the beach, and time pressing, a large number soon after chose the coast path, and viewed the Hordle part of the series from above. Lord Justice Thesiger, of Hordle House, wrote to express his regret at being unable to join the excursion. During a short halt, when Dr. Foulerton kindly proposed a vote of thauks to the Director, the magnificent panorama which stretched for 50 miles, embracing the Isle of Wight, the Solent and the whole coast to St. Alban's Head, and the Purbeck Hills, was fully appreciated. The Members soon after entered the conveyances provided for them at Milford, and drove to Lymington. The 5.50 train to London took the party to Brockenhurst, where a number left it to return to Bournemouth. The Excursion, was largely attended, and owing to the magnificent weather and the beauty and interest of the country traversed, was keenly enjoyed. [end of report]

Gardner, J.S., Keeping, H. and Monckton, H.W. 1888. The Upper Eocene, comprising the Barton and Upper Bagshot Formations. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 44, 578-635. [For Barton see particularly pp. 580, 583-4, 587-591, 594, 601, 620-633].

Garvey , P. 2007. A Study of the Reactivation of Landsliding at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire following Stabilisation Works in the 1960s. M.Sc. Dissertation in Engineering in the Coastal Environment Instructional Course. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southampton, September 2007. 202pp. By Phil Garvey.
Summary: The mostly clay cliffs of Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, comprise inhomogeneous strata of the Bracklesham, Barton and Headon Hill Formations, overlain unconformably by the Plateau Gravels, and have a long history of erosion and instability. Heavily engineered stabilisation works involving a 1,500-long sheet-piled wall and cut-off drain were installed in the 1960s but a number of catastrophic failures of the wall have occurred at locations along the Barton frontage since then. This report is concerned with the failures at Cliff House Hotel / Tom's Garden and at Hoskins Gap West. Extensive monitoring of the cliffs over the the past sixty years has produced a large and divert dataset which has been compiled, analysed and assessed in this report. This includes inclinometer, piezometer and rainfall records, topographic surveying, aerial and ground photography, borehole and exposures logs, consultants' reports, engineering drawing and newspaper articles. This report identifies characteristics of the key periods of activity at the two locations and compares and contrasts them. Maps of the areas of activity, cliff-top retreat, revetment movement and drainage patterns are provided. Fieldwork undertaken for the project includes the logging of three cliff exposures and the surveying of four cross-section profiles. Drawing on the information available it charts the progress of instability in the two study areas suggests possible mechanisms for the failures and offers a prediction of future activit based upon the mechanisms described. [end of abstract on p. ii, Table of Contents follows. This report has several good maps and diagrams. It includes for example, as Fig. 7.3, on p. 106, Enlargement of Rendel's 1998 geomorphological map with survey points superimposed, on the 2005 ortho-rectified aerial photograph of the Cliff House Hotel landslide area ] [author of the report is Phil Garvey, Senior Engineer at Arcadis, Reading, United Kingdom. - online at - https://uk.linkedin.com/in/phil-garvey-40754313]


Gilkes , R.J. 1966. The Clay Mineralogy of the Tertiary Sediments of the Hampshire Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Geology Department, University of Southampton, UK. By Professor Robert Gilkes.

Gilkes, R.J. 1968. Clay mineral provinces in the Tertiary sediments of the Hampshire Basin. Clay Minerals, 7, 351-361. By Robert J. Gilkes, Department of Geology, Southampton University [there is also a Ph.D. Thesis on this topic]. Abstract: An X-ray diffraction study of over 600 specimens has shown that Tertiary sediments of the Hampshire Basin are divided into two clay mineral provinces. The western province is characterised by kaolin from the West Country granites whilst the highly montmorillonitic sediments of the eastern province were partially derived from the dissolution of Chalk by tropical weathering.


Gleser , Z.I. 1996. Evolutionary relationship of the Eocene diatom flora to some abiotic factors. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 4, 269-276. Abstract: The Eocene evolution of the diatom flora of oceanic and epicontinental sea basins is discussed within the context of some abiotic factors. It was found that from the beginning of the Eocene to the end of the Lutetian, the flora of the Eurosiberian type was widely spread, and the flora of the Atlantic type began to progress from the middle of the early Miocene to reach its prosperity at the end of the Lutetian and the beginning of the Bartonian. The evolution of the flora in basins was controlled by the migration of biogenic elements into the euphotic zone, which in turn, depended upon volcanic activity, transgressions, climate, and lateral and vertical currents. The taxonomic composition of the flora in separate basins is a reflection of a combined effect of global and local factors on evolutionary and migration processes.


Green, J.F.N. 1936. The terraces of southernmost England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 92, 58-88. [Pleistocene gravels].

Green, J.F.N. 1946. The terraces of Bournemouth, Hants. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 57, 82-101. [Pleistocene gravels].

Green, J.F.N. 1947. Some gravels and gravel pits in Hampshire and Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 58, 128-143. In the course of mapping the terraces of the rivers near Bournemouth and, in less detail, those of the Axe, Otter and Dart, some study of the river deposits associated with them has been inevitable. The possibilities of archaeological dating has been constantly borne in mind and in a recent paper [1] particular attention has been drawn to the location of gravel pits in this connection. ..


Halcrow, Sir William and Partners. 1969. Barton-on-Sea Cliff Stabilisation (Stage 3). Report on proposed protection works to and the stabilisation of Barton Cliffs from limit of Stage 2 (Cliffe Road) westward to Chewton Bunny. Report to Lymington Borough Council, January 1969. [not seen]

Halcrow, Sir William and Partners. 1971. Highcliffe: Report on the Instability of the Cliffs and Recommended Remedial Works. Private report to the Borough of Christchurch. [not seen]

Halcrow, Sir William and Partners, 1980. Poole and Christchurch Bays Research Project, Phase One Report, 2 Volumes. Report to the Department of the Environment.

Halcrow Group. 1998. Western Solent and Southampton Water Shoreline Management Plan. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire, UK.

Halcrow Group. 1999. Poole and Christchurch Bays Shoreline Management Plan. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire.

Halcrow Group. 2003. Poole and Christchurch Bays Strategy Studies: Discussion Paper on Hengistbury Head. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire.


Halstead, L.B. and Middleton, J. 1972. Notes on Fossil Wales from the Upper Eocene of Barton, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol. 83, pt.2, pp. 185-190. By L. Beverley Halstead and Jennifer Middleton.
Abstract: Three vertebrae discovered in the Barton Clay of Hampshire are described and assigned to archaeocete whales: the short-bodied dolphin-like Zygorhiza and the large serpentine Basilosaurus. This is the first record of the latter genus outside of North America.


Harland, W.B., Cox, A.V., Llewellyn, P.G., Pickton, C.A.G., Smith, A.G. and Walters, R. 1982. A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Harrison, C.J.O. and Walker, C.A. 1976. Birds of the British Upper Eocene. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 59, pp. 323-351. By Colin J.O. Harrison and Cyril A. Walker.

Harrison, C.J.O. and Walker, C.A. 1977. Birds of the British Lower Eocene. Tertiary Research Special Paper No. 3. London. The Tertiary Research Group. 52 pp.


Haskins, C.W. 1968-1971. Tertiary Ostracoda from the Isle of Wight and Barton, Hampshire, England. Parts 1-7. Revue de Micropaleontologie, 10, 250-260; 11, 3-12, 161-175; 12, 149-170; 13, 13-29, 207-221; 14, 147-156.



Hastings, Marchioness of

[ Marchioness of Hastings - Wikipedia Report, 2018. Barbara Rawdon-Hastings, Marchioness of Hastings. ...[brief extracts with minor modifications and notes added] "Lady Hastings was an avid collector of fossils, specialising in vertebrates. Since 1855 her collection has been housed in the British Museum .. Professor Richard Owen wrote of the thousands of fossils previously in her private museum at Efford House [near Lymington, and now a garden centre]. .. Lady Hastings associated with many eminent scientists during her lifetime, including Edward Forbes, Charles Lyell [who lived at Cadnam in the New Forest], Alexander Falconer and Richard Owen. ... In 1847 Lady Hastings presented her paper to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, exhibiting two crocodile skulls and the test of turtle from Hordle (or Hordwell Cliff). She understood that the Solent area had been a freshwater lake, but she would not, of course, have known that this was about 36 million years ago. [Something of the palaeogeography of her lake is now known, particularly that it probably did not extend to the southern part of the Isle of Wight. The formation of the lake and its southen limitation was a distant minor effect of the first impact of the Algerian Plate (i.e. Africa) with a European Plate that took place about 40 million years ago.]

Hastings, Marchioness of. 1852. [On the Tertiary Beds of Hordwell, Hampshire, England.] Bull. Geol. Soc. France, Series 2, tom. ix, 141-203. By Barbara, Marchioness of Hastings, referring to vertebrate discoveries and the stratigraphical locations of these. See also [ Marchioness of Hastings - Wikipedia Report, 2018. Barbara Rawdon-Hastings, Marchioness of Hastings. and Tawney and Keeping (1883) [see further down in this list] in which there is some critical discusssion . Lady Hastings was previously Lady Grey de Ruthyn. There is more information about the Marchioness of Hastings in Wikipedia, online.

Hastings, Marchioness of. 1848. On the freshwater Eocene beds of Hordle cliff, Hampshire. In Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1848), pp. 65-66.

Hastings, Marchioness of. 1853. On the Tertiary Beds of Hordwell, Hampshire. Philosophical Magazine (Series 4), 6, pp. 1-11. By Barbara, Marchioness of Hastings. (in London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine). Communicated by the Authoress.
The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Fourth Series, July 1853. "1. On the Tertiary Beds of Hordwell, Hampshire, By the Marchioness of Hastings.
During the six years that I have resided in the immediate vicinity of the Cliffs of Hordwell, I have been enabled, through the extreme kindness and liberality of Dr. Chambers, who has allowed me ever facility for pursuing my investigations, and to whom these cliffs belong, to make them and their strata the object of very minute researches. Their nature is such, that any one, to become thoroughly aquainted with each deposit and its contents, must have daily opportunities of examining them. [she was unuually thorough!]
The top is composed of a bed of gravel [Pleistocene gravel] from 15 to 20 feet. This and the whole portion of the upper part of the cliff are perpetually falling, and covering by their descent all the lower strata; or at least coating them so with the various upper sands and clays, that unless the surface be laid bare by digging, it is impossible to ascertain the true nature of the strata beneath.
There have been many opinions as to the natural causes which lead to the rigid decay of these cliffs: the sea has been generally accused of being the originator of all the mischief, and certainly it encroaches considerably every year.
But it is now generally acknowledged that the inland springs do quite as much damage, and that their inroads are more rapid on the upper part of the cliff than those of the sea on the lower.
There are seldom falls in summer or in the dry weather, and from my own observations, I am inclined to believe that the following is the way in which springs of fresh water act upon the cliff.
In the winter, during heavy rains, they become much swollen ...
[end of short extract. Apparently there are sixty-four of her letters to and from the palaeontologist Owen in the Natural History Museum's, Owen Collection.]

[See also the paper by Tawney and Keeping (1883), listed further down, re the Marchioness of Hastings. Tawney was her fossil collector at one time. There had been some dispute about the apparent sequence which apparently had been complicated by cliff falls. Tawney and Keeping have as Fig. 1, a detailed log, showing the location of the Crocodile Bed, Bed 15, seven feet thick, with crocodile remains at two levels.]

Henderson, G. 1980. A study of wave climate and wave energy in Poole and Christchurch Bays. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton, 475pp.
Hernon , J.C. 2006. An investigation into the suitability of the one-line model 'Beachplan' for predicting Shoreline Changes at Naish Farm Beach, Hampshire. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of MSc in the Coastal Environment by instruction course. School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics, University of Southampton, 84 pp. & diagrams. [running of a series of computer models to assess beach changes at Naish Farm Beach near Highcliffe and Barton-on-Sea]
Abstract: Depletion of the beach at Naish Farm has taken place in response to the construction of sea defences at Highcliffe. This case is a classic example of the phenomena of "Downdrift Erosion" in response to the construction of a barrier to the dominant direction of littoral drift. The Channel Coastal Observatory has surveyed beach profiles at the site several times per year over a period of nearly 20 years, and as such, much information on the response of the beach since the implementation of the defences is available to the author.
The author aims validate the output of a numerical one-line model called BEACHPLAN, developed by H.R. Wallingford, by means of comparison of output for modelling undertaken of Naish Farm Beach, with measured beach profiles from the site. If modelling of the site proves to be accurate, it may be inferred that the parameters used in the model provide an accurate representation of the processes occurring at the site. The effect of the groyne field at Highcliffe on the undefended stretch of frontage at Naish Farm is discussed.
It is concluded that, according to the model, there is a strong likelihood that there is a large volume of material being supplied to the Naish Farm frontage by a layer of Plateau Gravel present in the cliffs backing the site, or by some other process not paramatised in the model. Whilst the model provides a useful insight into the processes occurring at the site, further research would be required to substantiate the claim that the parameter values used in the model provide an accurate representation of the processes occurring at the site.
Hodson , F. and Shelford, P.H. 1964. Geology. Pp. 15-36 in: A Survey of Southampton and Its Region. Prepared for the August 1964 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton, Editor; F.J. Monkhouse, 349 pp.

Hooke , J. M. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. Edited by Janet Hooke, Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. [From publisher's blurb: "Tremendous changes in attitude, policy and practice in relation to coastal defences have taken place in Britain over the last 10 years but considerable conflicts between the interests of coastal protection and those of conservation remain. This book examines the needs of both and then explores methods and strategies which may be used to achieve a compromise or produce sustainable decisions. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation has contributions from engineers and conservationists and is principally written by practitioners within the field. The intended audience are professionals, such as engineers and planners involved in coastal and shoreline management, and conservationists in both national and local agencies". Cover photograph is of the Barton cliffs. For the Barton cliffs - see papers by Barton, by Daley, by Bray and Hooke, and by others.]

Hooke, J. M. 1998. Issues and strategies in relation to geological and geomorphological conservation and defence of the coast. Pp. 1-9 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. [This is not specifically on the Barton coast but discusses broad issues of coastal defence and conservation and is an introduction to the remainder of the book.]

Hooke, J. M. and Riley, R.C. 1991. Historical changes on the Hampshire coast 1870-1965. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society , 47, pp. 203-224. By Dr. Janet Hooke and Dr. Ray Riley of the Department of Geography, Portsmouth University (originally Portsmouth Polytechnic).
The changes which occurred on the Hampshire coastline in the period 1870 to 1965 are identified from a comparison of large-scale Ordnance Survey maps. The types of change arre classified into six categories - erosion, accretion, lateral movement of spits, reclamation, loss of land, and narrowing or widening of the intertidal zone. In addition to cliff and beach erosion, narrowing of the intertidal area emerges as a major change which has taken place on many parts of the Hampshire coast. Changes in the most dynamic sections of the coast are analysed for trends and patterns of variation and some rates of erosion are presented, derived from measurements on 1/2500 scale maps.

also, an earlier draft version:
Hooke, J. and Riley, R. 1987. Historical Changes on the Hampshire Coast 1870-1965. Portsmouth Polytechnic (now Portsmouth University), Department of Geography, 59 pp. typescript. (In the Cope Collection of the Hartley Library, Southampton University). By Dr. Janet Hooke and Dr. Ray Riley of the Department of Geography, Portsmouth Polytechnic now Portsmouth University, July, 1987. With 20 figures and 23 papers given in the references.
Extract from the Introduction:
"In this report, which is part of an overall review of the Hampshire, coast, the aim is to identify the major changes which have taken place on the coastline in the period 1870 - 1965. The types of change are classified and each section of coast is categorised according to these types. Both natural and human changes are included. Where changes are significant the amounts and rates of change are examined and the variations through the period 1870 - 1965 are distinguished. Trends and fluctuations are identified where possible, though no attempt is made to explain the causes of all the changes or to predict future changes.
An historical perspective is considered essential for an understanding of the present coastline and particularly as a background to proposed developments, the implementation of coastal defences or conservation policy. The coast is a naturally dynamic zone as well as being subject to severe development pressures; it should not be assumed that it is stable or has remained the same for the last hundred years.
The area covered by this report is that of the present Hampshire coast (Figure 1), though in terms of coastal processes and changes the coastal units should be seen as extending to Hengistbury Head in the west and Selsey Bill in the east.
The coast of Hampshire varies considerably in character, form and process, ranging from rapidly eroding cliffs to sheltered harbours and extensive salt marshes. Much of the coast is within the relatively sheltered Solent and not subject to the most powerful waves and marine forces. In large part the coast is densely settled and has been subject to development for many centuries, especially around the harbours and river estuaries. Land reclamation from the sea has long been an important if piecemeal activity.
The broad categories of major change in the period 1870 - 1965 are identified in Figure 10. Onshore changes are those above the high tide level and include various types which will be discussed below, but erosion and reclamation are the most important. Offshore changes as indicated by movement of the Low Water Mark (LMW) are also investigated in this report and emerge as an extremely important type of change affecting a high proportion of the Hampshire Coast. Indeed one of the principal findings of this report is the landward movement of the LWM resulting in a narrowing of the intertidal zone.
Methods of investigation are discussed in Section 2 and types of changes in Section 3. The remainder of this report describes changes along the coast from west to east." [Methods of Investigation - follow]

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Hooker, J.J. 1975. Report of field meeting to Barton, Hampshire, October 12th, 1974. Tertiary Times, 2, 163-167.

Hooker, J.J. 1977. A mammal from the Upper Eocene of Hengistbury, Dorset. Tertiary Research, 1, 91-94. Hooker, J.J. 1986. Mammals from the Bartonian (middle/late Eocene) of the Hampshire Basin, southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Geology), 39, 191-478.

Hooker, J.J. 1987. Mammalian faunal events in the English Hampshire Basin (late Eocene - early Oligocene) and their application to European biostratigraphy. Munchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A), 10, 109-116.


Hooker, J.J. 1992. British mammalian paleocommunities across the Eocene-Oligocene transition and their environmental implications. Pp. 494-515, In: Prothero, D.R. and Berggren, W.A. (eds.) Eocene-Oligocene Climatic Change and Biotic Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. [KEY PAPER FOR BARTON CORRELATION CREECHBARROW- BARTON - WHITECLIFF BAY- SEE FIG. 25.1.]. See also Collinson, M.E. 1992 in the same book.
Faunal turnovers, changes in species numbers and in ecological diversity in the southern English mammal faunas from the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene are used to interpret environmental changes at this important time. Integration with similar ecological information from the Franco-Swiss Province demonstrates latitudinal differences in mammalian habitats early on, with forests in the north, more open but mosaic habitats in the south. Both areas became dominantly more open and uniform from the latest Eocene onwards.
Extrapolation from continental mammalian zonations to the standard marine scale via the few available points of facies interdigitation in Europe allows more precise calibration than hitherto of one of mammalian dispersal events and of community changes. The latter especially can be linked with cooling climate as indicated by the marine oxygen isotope record. The 'Grande Coupure' the major late Palaeogene mammalian faunal turnover event in Europe, took place in the early Oligocene.

Hooker, J.J., Collinson, M.E., Vanbergen, P.F., Singer, R.L., Deleeuw, J.W. and Jones, T.P. 1995. Reconstruction of land and fresh-water palaeoenvironments near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, southern England. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 152, 449-468. Abstract: Mammalian assemblages in the Bembridge Limestone Formation of late Eocene age, Headon Hill, Isle of Wight, England, indicate habitats ranging from open woodland to closed forest. Distinctive 'lower' and 'upper' mammalian faunas reflect different faunal provinces, probably in response to climatic fluctuations that foreshadowed the terminal Eocene event. In order to improve our understanding of these patterns, we have examined a variety of other palaeoenvironmental indicators from this section. These include paylnological organic matter (POM), plant macrofossils, non-mammalian faunas, organic geochemistry and stable isotopes. The evidence shows that the depositional setting was a tranquil, shallow, freshwater lake, with a brief lagoonal interval However, evidence for habitats surrounding the lake is contradictory, emphasizing the necessity for multidisciplinary approaches to palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The mammal faunas give unequivocal evidence for woodland or forest, yet, apart from some of the land snails, there is no other indication of the presence of trees. Furthermore, according to the mammalian evidence the lake was bordered by distinctive vegetation at different times, with closed forest/woodland during marl deposition and open woodland during black mud deposition, but there are no parallel fluctuations in other biotic elements. [Not specifically on the Highcliffe, Barton or Hordle sections, but relevent to any palaeoenvironmental studies of the Headon Hill Formation at Hordle Cliff etc. Probably also a useful source for finding further references.]

Hooker, J.J. and Insole, A.N. 1980. The distribution of mammals in the English Palaeogene. Tertiary Research, 3 (1), 31-45. Abstract: An examination of the literature on British Palaeogene mammal faunas shows that they have received scant attention since the beginning of the century. The last two decades have seen a revival of interest and several techniques and acid digestion has considerably improved our knowledge of the mammal faunas in both the London and Hampshire Basins. Although investigations are still in progress, this seems an opportune time to present the data so far obtained. The pre-Barton Sand data have been compiled by J.J. Hooker and post-Barton Sand data by A.N. Insole.

Hooker, J.J., Insole, A.N., Moody, R.T.J., Walker, C.A. and Ward, D.J. 1980. The distribution of cartilaginous fish, turtles, birds and mammals in the British Palaeogene. Tertiary Research, 3, 1-2.

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Huthnance, J.M. 2000. Predicting storm surges and other sea level changes. Pp. 135-147 in: Dealing with Natural Disasters: Achievements and New Challenges in Science, Technology and Engineering. Royal Society, London, October, 1999.

Huthnance, J.M. 2003. Sea change. Geoscientist: the magazine of the Geological Society of London, vol. 13, No.6, pp. 4-7. Geologists are familiar with the sea's many ups and downs. John Huthnance discusses sea level changes on a range of timescales, and the limits of prediction.
Example text: "Within large uncertainties, these effects can account for the present observed rate of "global" sea-level rise - approximately l.5mm/y (or 0.1 to O.2m in the past 100 years, estimated from in situ gauges, corrected for land movements). The European figure (~lmm/y) is at the low end of global values. Sea-level trends (relative to land) at UK tide gauges range from -l.lmm/y (Lerwick) to 2.1mm/y (Sheerness). Typical standard errors at any one gauge are 0.1 to 0.8mm/y; less than O.2mm/y for long records (Fig. 1). The longest records suggest an acceleration of 0.3 to 0.9mm/year/century for NW Europe, apparently beginning in the 19th Century. Acceleration is less apparent in 20th Century records alone.
Sea level 100 years from now:
Ocean expansion from warming is expected to make the largest contribution (O.l-O4m) to sea-level rise in the next 100 years. Other contributions are O.lm from glaciers and a small rise from ablation of the Greenland ice cap offset by a small fall from increased snowfall over Antarctica. Various scenarios and models, including those of the UK Hadley Centre, provide estimates for total 1990-2100 sea-level rise ranging from 0.09m to 0.88m; the central estimate is OA8m.
Regional sea-level trends may vary, but models disagree about the geographical patterns; local estimates range between zero and twice the global average. Year-to-year mean sea-level variations common to sites around the UK are typically 30mm,. These exceed typical 15mm meteorologically forced (tide+surge model) variability, and may reflect changes in North Atlantic circulation."
Insole, A.N. and Daley, B. 1985. A revision of the lithostratigraphic nomenclature of the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene strata of the Hampshire Basin, southern England. Tertiary Research, 7, 67-100.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers, 21pp. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This Summary for Policymakers was formally approved at the 10 Session of Working Group 1 of IPCC, Paris, February 2007. [Available online on the Internet.]
The Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report describes progress in understanding of the human and natural drivers of climate change, observed climate change, climate processes and attribution, and estimates of projected future climate change. It builds upon past IPCC assessments and incorporates new findings from the past six years of research. Scientific progress since the TAR is based upon large amounts of new and more comprehensive data, more sophisticated analyses of data, improvements in understanding of processes and their simulation in models, and more extensive exploration of uncertainty ranges...
Human And Natural Drivers Of Climate Change:
Changes in the atmospheric abundance of greenhouse gases and aerosols, in solar radiation and in land surface properties alter the energy balance of the climate system. These changes are expressed in terms of radiative forcing, which is used to compare how a range of human and natural factors drive warming or cooling influences on global climate. Since the Third Assessment Report (TAR), new observations and related modelling of greenhouse gases, solar activity, land surface properties and some aspects of aerosols have led to improvements in the quantitative estimates of radiative forcing...." [continues]

Future sea level rise estimates for the Wessex coast
James, J. 1986. Hurst Castle: An Illustrated History. By Jude James. The Dovecote Press, Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset. 134 pp with numerous maps, diagrams and photographs. [Very thorough and very informative on a variety of topics - recommended!].
Jeffery, P. 1995. Developments at Milford on Sea, Hampshire, May 23rd, 1995. Tertiary Research Group Occasional Newsletter, 11, 2-3.
Jones, T.R. 1857. A Monograph of the Tertiary Entomostraca of England. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society.

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Keeping, H. 1921. Reminiscences of My Life. 2nd Edition, F.W. Talbot, Cambridge, 24 pp.

Keeping, H. and Tawney, E.B. 1883. On the section at Hordwell Cliffs, from the top of the Lower Headon to the base of the Upper Bagshot Sands. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London , 39, 566-574.
Kellogg, R. 1936. A review of the Archaeoceti. Publications of the Carnegie Institute, No. 482, i-xv, 1-366. 88 figs., 37 plates.
Kemp, D.J. 1982. A Brief Illustrated Account of the English Eocene Shark and Ray Fossils. Gosport Museum, Hampshire. 10pp. and 11 plates, November, 1977.

Kemp, D.J. 1982. Fossil Sharks, Rays and Chimaeroids of the English Tertiary Period. Gosport Museum. A complete illustrated guide by David John Kemp, 47pp, 10 figs, 3 tables, 16 plates.

Kemp, D.J., Kemp, L. and Ward, D. 1990. An Illustrated Guide to the British Middle Eocene Vertebrates. Published by David Ward, London, October 1990, 59 pp. By David Kemp, Liz Kemp and David Ward. [Useful small handbook, on sale at Portsmouth City Museums - original price 4 pounds. "Middle Eocene" is used in the sense of including the Barton Clay and Becton Sand, so Barton vertebrates are included.]
Kilbourn, P.C.R. 1971. Further studies on the Barton Clay Coastal Exposure at Highcliffe, Hampshire. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Southampton.


King, C. 2010. Stratigraphy, depositional environments and palaeogeography of the Colwell Bay Member (Headon Hill Formation, Solent Group, Late Eocene,Hampshire Basin). By Chris King of Park Road, Bridport, Dorset. pp. 247-260 in: Whitaker, J.E. and Hart, M.B., Editors, Micropalaeontology, Sedimentary Environments and Stratigraphy: a Tribute to Denis Curry (1912-2001). The Micropalaeontological Society, Special Publications. Published by the Geological Society for the Micropalaeontological Society. Price 110 pounds, 96 pence at Amazon. 90 pounds at the Geological Society but only 54 pounds to Fellows.
Abstract: Detailed logging of key outcrops and boreholes in mainly nearshore and marginal-marine sediments of the Colwell Bay Member has enabled regional correlations to be established. The Colwell Bay Member comprises a single depositional sequence, based by a combined sequence boundary and transgressive surface and terminated by a second sequence boundary. Regionally developed omission surfaces delimit five parasequence within the Colwell Bay Member. Environmentally controlled mollusc assemblages indicate progressive SW to NE progradation of marginally marine-marine environments within each parasequence. Previous interpretations of the Solent Group as deposited in a narrow embayment of the proto-English Channel are evaluated and rejected. It is interpreted as a remnant of wide area of coastal and near-coastal sediments deposited in a wide embayment of the southern North Sea Basin, now largely removed by mid-Tertiary uplift and erosion.

King, C. 2016. Edited by A.S.Gale and T.L. Barry. A revised correlation of Tertiary rocks in the British Isles and adjacent areas of NW Europe. Book, paperback, 724 pp. List Price 120 pounds sterling. [60 pounds sterling to Fellows of the Geological Society]. Published January 2016.
This Special Report comprehensively describes the stratigraphy and correlation of the Tertiary (Paleogene-Neogene) rocks of NW Europe and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean and is the summation of fifty years of research on Tertiary sediments by Chris King. His book is essential reading for all geologists who deal with Tertiary rocks across NW Europe, including those in the petroleum industry and geotechnical services as well as academic stratigraphers and palaeontologists. Introductory sections on chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other methods of dating and correlation are followed by a regional summary of Tertiary sedimentary basins and their framework and an introduction to Tertiary igneous rocks. The third and largest segment comprises the regional stratigraphic summaries. Regions covered are the North Sea Basin, onshore areas of southern England and the eastern English Channel area, the North Atlantic margins (including non-marine basins in the Irish Sea and elsewhere) and the Paleogene igneous rocks of Scotland.

Knight, M.J. 1974. The Geochemistry of Some of the Nodules and their Matrices from the Jurassic and Eocene Systems of the Coasts of Dorset and Hampshire. Unpublished M.Phil. Thesis, Geology Department, University of Southampton.
Kosal Sahin, S. and Yildirim, M.Z. 2007. The Mollusk Fauna of Lake Sapanca (Turkey: Marmara) and Some Physico-Chemical Parameters of Their Abundance. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 31 (2007) 47-52. Available online as a pdf file. Kosal Sahin and Yildirim (2007).
Abstract: To identify the mollusk fauna of Lake Sapanca (Turkey), samples were collected monthly from 5 stations between September 2000 and August 2001. The mollusk fauna of the lake consists of a total of 16 species, 12 of which belong to Gastropoda: Theodoxus fluviatilis, Viviparus acerosus costae, Esperiana accicularis situssineri, Esperiana esperi, Bithynia tentaculata, Lithoglyphus naticoides, Borysthenia naticina, Galba truncatula, Radix labiata, Lymnaea stagnalis, Planorbis planorbis, and Oxyloma elegans, and 4 to Bivalvia: Unio pictorum, Dreissena polymorpha, Anadonta cygnea, and Sphaerium lacustre. Furthermore, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and depth of each sample were measured at the sampling sites. [Of interest in having some faunal aspects resembling those of the lacustrine sediments of the Headon Hill Formation]
Lacey, S. 1985. Coastal Sediment Processes in Poole and Christchurch Bays and the Effects of Coast Protection Works. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton, 394p.
Laxton, P. 1976. 230 Years of Map Making in the County of Hampshire 1575-1826. Published by Harry Margary, Lympne Castle, Kent. Very large oversize, hardback volume with many maps, and with notes regarding particular maps.
Lewis, D.N., Donovan, S.K. and Sawford, P. 2003. Fossil echinoderms from the Carboniferous Limestone sea defence blocks at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association , 114, 307-317. Abstract: The sea defence/coastal protection works at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire include blocks of Carboniferous Limestone (Clifton Down Limestone Formation, Dinantian, Holkerian) from the Foster Yeoman 'Torr Works' Quarry at Merehead, East Cranmore, Shepton Mallet, Somerset. A rich fauna of echinoderms, corals, bryozoans, trilobites, brachiopods and gastropods is present in these blocks. The echinoderms include plates of the tests of the echinoids Palaechinus sp., Archaeocidaris sp. and an indeterminate echinoid: calyces of the crinoids platycrinitid sp., Actinocrinus sp. aff. A. rotundatus Wright, monobathrid sp. indet., camerate sp. indet. and Taxocrinus sp.; and numerous ossicles, including Cyclothyris (col.) sp. and Pentagonocyclicus (col.) spp. Camerates were important members of early Carboniferous crinoid faunas, although the absence of cladids is notable. Examination of any fossils contained within coastal protection blocks is an important source of information when the place of origin of the blocks is known but is unavailable for study purposes. [by David N. Lewis, Natural History Museum, London, Stephen K. Donovan, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, and Paul Sawford, Ruislip Road, Northolt, Middlesex.]
Linaker, E.E. 1981. Reclaiming Christchurch Bay: an exciting pipe dream lives again. Hampshire County Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 61-62. By Edward E. Linaker. In 1966 John Arlott wrote in the same magazine asking for writers on marinas to put forward a project for Christchurch Bay. Linaker responded, writing under the name "The Ocean Tramp", and suggested a caison breakwater from Hengistbury on Christchurch Ledge, with an entrance and then another breakwater on Dolphin Bank and Shingles Bank to Hurst Castle. Roads would be built on the breakwaters, with an approach roads coming in through Hengistbury Head and Hurst Castle Spit. The scheme was to include marinas, fishing boat harbours, fish farming lagoons and a fresh water reservoir fed by rivers from Christchurch harbour. A new town was also suggested but this idea was badly received. The 1981 paper includes a modified version without the town. An earlier idea of a major airport is also mentioned. A letter had suggested that a 9 mile long runway, the largest in the world for a civil airport could be built in reclaimed Christchurch Bay, saving valuable agricultural land. The airport would be in easy motorway contact with London. One of these major development schemes, with or without the airport, would remove the present coast of Barton and Highcliffe from the open sea and, in so doing, once and for all solve the problem of coast erosion. [The loss of Christchurch Bay whether it be to a backwater, an offshore carpark, a new town or an airport might not, however, be popular with other than developers!]
"The writer was asked to address a meeting on the project at the local community centre. Expecting to be hailed as a possible deliverer - for the "rotten" or Barton Clay cliffs are subject are subject to ceaseless erosion, with the cliffs dangerous and parts of the beach sometimes inaccessible through landslides, and houses near the cliff edge endangered, the instigator of the project "Oceanus" went to the meeting only to be met with a very cool reception. The locals wanted nothing to do with the scheme, only a few with houses near the receding cliff edge offering any support. The suggestion of a new town construction had clearly been a cardinal error and the "Ocean Tramp", a shy man and no orator, gave the locals best, informed the Dredging contractors and other potential supporter of the public meeting, pointing out that they would get the "Bronx Cheer" if they tried to push the development against the wishes of the hostile natives."

Love, L.G. and Murray, J.W. 1963. Biogenic pyrite in recent sediments of Christchurch Harbour, England. American Journal of Science, 261, 433-448.

Lydekker, 1891. Catalogue of Fossil Birds. British Museum (Natural History), London. [Pelicaniformes - Actiornis anglicus Lydekker (1891) was based on a proximal end of a ulna from the Late Eocene of England.]
Lyell, C. 1829. On the freshwater strata of Hordwell Cliff, Beacon Cliff, and Barton Cliff, Hampshire. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, Second Series, Vol. 2, London, 287-292. Sold at the Appartments of the Geological Society, Somerset House. By Sir Charles Lyell, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. Read June 2nd, 1826. [With cliff sections].
Mackintosh, I. and Rainbow, J. 1996. Naish Beach, Barton-on-Sea Coast Protection Scheme. Engineers Report, New Forest District Council, Town Hall, Avenue Road, Lymington, Hampshire, UK.
Go also to: "Hastings" .
Marchioness of Hastings. 1852. Descriptions geologique des falaises d'Hordle. Bulletin Soc. Geol. France, vol. 9, p. 191. [Geological descriptions of Hordle Cliffs.
Marchioness of Hastings - Wikipedia Report, 2018. Barbara Rawdon-Hastings, Marchioness of Hastings. ...[brief extracts with minor modifications and notes added] "Lady Hastings was an avid collector of fossils, specialising in vertebrates. Since 1855 her collection has been housed in the British Museum .. Professor Richard Owen wrote of the thousands of fossils previously in her private museum at Efford House [near Lymington, and now a garden centre]. .. Lady Hastings associated with many eminent scientists during her lifetime, including Edward Forbes, Charles Lyell [who lived at Cadnam in the New Forest], Alexander Falconer and Richard Owen. ... In 1847 Lady Hastings presented her paper to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, exhibiting two crocodile skulls and the test of turtle from Hordle (or Hordwell Cliff). She understood that the Solent area had been a freshwater lake, but she would not, of course, have known that this was about 36 million years ago. [Something of the palaeogeography of her lake is now known, particularly that it probably did not extend to the southern part of the Isle of Wight. The formation of the lake and its southen limitation was a distant minor effect of the first impact of the Algerian Plate (i.e. Africa) with a European Plate that took place about 40 million years ago.]

(See also Tawney and Keeping (1883), further down this list, which is relevant to both Hordle Cliff and the Marchioness)
Masselink, G. and Hughes, M.G. 2003. Introduction to Coastal Processes and Geomorphology. Hodder Arnold, London.
McKirdy, A.D. 1987. Protective works and geological conservation. In: Culshaw, M.G. et al. (eds.) Planning and Engineering Geology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 4, 81-85.
MAFF/Welsh Office. 1993. Strategy for Flood and Coastal Defence in England and Wales. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, UK) publications.

MAFF. 1994.Coast Protection Survey of England. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, UK) publications.

Mannion, M. 199? (pre 1994). Coast protection at Highcliffe. This may be the title page of a Report of SCOPAC, Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. Sea-Level Rise and Global Warming: Scenarios, Physical Impact and Policies, University of Portsmouth. It is published in one volume of about 200 pages and could be obtained on pre-payment of £25.00 + £2.00 postage and packing from Christchurch Borough Council. Plus other titles of reports on Barton and Highcliffe. Title pages only.
Marsland, A. and Butler, M.E. 1967. Stength measurements on stiff fissured Barton Clay from Fawley (Hampshire). Proceedings of the Geotechnical Conference, Oslo. 1, 139-146.
Martini, E. 1970a. Standard Palaeogene calcareous nannoplankton zonation. Nature, London, 226, 560-561. [zones based on coccoliths and discoasters]

Martini, E. 1970b. The Upper Eocene Brockenhurst Bed. Geological Magazine, 107, 225-228. Abstract: Calcareous nannoplankton from the Brockenhurst Bed of Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight, belongs to zone NP 20 of the standard Palaeogene calcareous nannoplankton zonation, indicating that the stratigraphic position of the Brockenhurst bed is in the uppermost Eocene, and not equivalent to the type Lattorfian (Lower Oligocene).
Melville, R.V. and Freshney, E.C. 1982. British Regional Geology: The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas. British Geological Survey (formerly the Institute of Geological Sciences), London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 146 pp. [Popular, low-cost, informative paper-back explaining the geology of the region. This is the latest of several editions, e.g. Chatwin. Pp. 105-108 are on the strata of Barton, Highcliffe and Hordle Cliff].
Miller, E. and Nash, E. 2007. CliffBanger: Did Kent earthquake rupture seafront 150 miles along the coast? Daily Mirror, Monday April 30, 2007. page 5.

This massive cliff crack [photograph of the small, 31 metre long old crack] threatening 50 beach huts was feared yesterday to have been triggered by the Kent earthquake 150 miles away.

The 1,OOOft rupture [actually only 31 metres!], 6ft deep and 6in wide, left a rocky outcrop hanging precariously over a beach and could spark a landslide weighing hundreds of tonnes. In its path are fragile beach huts worth hundreds of thousands of pounds. Police evacuated and cordoned off the danger zone at Barton on Sea, Hants, as structural engineers, surveyors and fire crews made safety checks.

The Marine and Coastguard Agency was alerted to the crack two hours after Saturday's quake left more than 70 homes in Folkestone in dangerous condition and caused at least £lO million damage. Barton is virtually due west of the epicentre of the quake, under the Channel 7.5 miles south of Dover. The MCA said: "We don't know if the rupture is linked to shock waves but it's too coincidental to ignore. If the crack gets any bigger it could lead to a landslide."

Hut owner-Val Branston, 57, said: "It'd be a disaster if the huts are swamped. They cost a bomb. We can only hope the council gets rid of the risk with a controlled explosion. We pay hundreds of pounds in premiums for our little plots by the beach so the least we expect is safety" .... [continues]

[This article is not to be taken seriously since it is founded on totally false information about the size of the crack and the date at which it appears. There seems to be no connection with the Kent Earthquake of Saturday 28 April 2007. Perhaps the newspaper cannot be condemned for being too sensational, but the article has caused some amusement. Has there been some confusion with the more important fissure on the west side of Barton or has the size and date of origin been given incorrectly to the newspaper by a local organisation or individual. Very strange!
See Yandell (2007) for a Daily Echo account of the Barton crack, with more realistic information.]
Milner, A.C., Milner, A.R. and Estes, R. 1982. Amphibian and squamates from the Upper Eocene of Hordle Cliff, Hampshire - a preliminary report. Tertiary Research, 4, 149-154.

Mlikovsky, J. 1996. Tertiary Avian Localities of the United Kingdom. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 39 (1995), pp. 759-771. J. Mlikovsky, Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43, Praha 2, Czech Republic; and Institute of Ecology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. This paper is available online as a pdf file.
Abstract: Overall at least 24 localities of Tertiary birds are known from the United Kingdom. Most of them are of Eocene to Oligocene age. [See details re Highcliffe, Barton, Hordle Cliff - particularly, Lee-on-the-Solent etc.]
[Extract re Barton, given below
14. Barton. Location Hampshire, England, Late Eocene, MP 14-16 (cf. Harrison and Walker, 1976a). Deposited in IGS. Type locality of Villetus waltoni Harrison and Walker (1976a).
Avifauna: Partial tibiotarsus, attributed to the Scolopacidae (Villetus) (Harrison and Walker, 1976a). Deposited in the BMNH. Type locality of Villetus grandis Harrison and Walker, 1976a.
[See the important section 16 on the birds of Hordle Cliff, Headon Hill Formation. This is the type locality of about a dozen species! See also Highcliffe and Milford]


Mockridge, R.G. 1982. Highcliffe Cliffs - the maintenance of coastal slopes. Proceedings of the Conference on Shoreline Protection, Southampton, 1982, Proceeding of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 235-242. [See also Symposium, 1982, below].
Monckton, H.W. and White, H.J.O. 1910. Hampshire and Bagshot District. Chapter 12, pp. 277-292 in: Monckton, H.W. and Herries, R.S. (Eds.) 1910. Geology in the Field. The Jubilee Volume of the Geologists' Association (1858-1908). Edward Stanford, London. 916 pp. Illustrated by 32 plates and 138 figures in the text. ["The Association has on three occasions visited the cliffs of Bournemouth and Barton, viz., at Easter, 1880, Easter, 1888, and Easter, 1894, and Mr Starkie Gardner, who acted as director, or one of the directors, on these occasions, explained that he did not wholly agree with the classification of strata adopted by the Geological Survey. His views of the relationship of the Hampshire Eocene beds to those of the Isle of Wight are very clearly shown by the diagram ..." continues. It includes fig. 48. View of the cliffs between Poole Harbour and Boscombe, showing position of plant-beds etc., J. Starkie Gardner. In addition to discussion of the Bournemouth cliffs before the promenade was built, and of Hengistbury Head, and of the breaching of Mudeford Spit, there are description of the Barton and Hordle cliff sections.]
Morley, G. 1994. Smuggling in Hampshire and Dorset 1700-1850. Countryside Books, Newbury, Berkshire, 220pp. Paperback. ISBN 0 905392 24 8. By Geoffrey Morley. First Published 1983, Reprinted 1984, 1985, 1987, Revised and reprinted 1990, 1994.
Morris, D. (editor) 1914. Book - A Natural History of Bournemouth and District, including Archaeology, Topography, Municipal Government, Climate, Education, Fauna, Flora and Geology. Bournmouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth, 400pp. Sold by Horace G. Commin, 100, Commercial Road, Bournemouth and Bright's Stores Ltd., The Arcade, Bournemouth. By the members of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, edited by Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G, J.P., M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.H.S., President, Natural Science Society. [Small book with hard blue cover and gold impressed letters, price on the cover - Half a Crown Net. ]


Morton, A. 2016. A Collection of Eocene and Oligocene Fossils; compiled by Alan Morton. Go to:
A Collection of Eocene and Oligocene Fossils, compiled by Alan Morton.
This Eocene and Oligocene Web Site of Alan Morton displays more than 2,000 of the characteristic fossils of the Eocene and Oligocene deposits of England. The photographs are of very high quality and very impressive. The main subsections, which can clicked on to enter, are: London Clay, Bracklesham Beds, Barton Beds, Headon Beds, and Hamstead, Osborne and Bembridge Beds. The particular collection that is the source of the specimen or specimens is cited. The author of the species is given, and with the date. The size is given in millimetres. Varieties are specified, with the name of the author. The Contents list includes: The Collection; Instructions; What's New; Stratigraphy; References; Links; Acknowledgements; Contact Alan Morton. This website has been given the "Golden Trilobite Award" of the Palaeontological Association. It is an extremely useful and quite remarkable website. [More on the Contents. It includes, London Clay Gastropods, London Clay Bivalves, Bracklesham Gastropods, Bracklesham Bivalves, Bracklesham Vertebrates, Bracklesham Other Invertebrates, Barton Bivalves, Barton Gastropods, Barton Vertebrates, Barton Other Invertebrates, Headon Bivalves, Headon Gastropods, Headon Vertebrates, Headon Other Invertebrates, Hamstead, Bembridge, Osborne Bivalves, Hamstead, Bembridge, Osborne Gastropods, Hamstead, Bembridge, Osborne Vertebrates, Hamstead, Bembridge, Osborne, Other Invertebrates. www.dpmap.co.uk.]

Morris, D. 1914. Bournemouth Natural Science Society. Pp. 365-370, a chapter in the book: Morris, D. 1914. A Natural History of Bournemouth and District; including Archaeology, Topography, Municipal Government, Climate, Education, Fauna, Flora and Geology. By the members of Bournemouth Natural Science Society. Published by the Bournemouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth, 400pp. Editor - Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., J.P., M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.H.S., President of Bournemouth Natural Science Society.


Muir Wood, A.M. 1967. Coastal stabilisation at Barton-on-Sea. Civil Engineering Public Works Review, 62, 1402-1402.

Muir Wood, A.M. 1971. Engineering aspects of coastal landslides. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 50, 257-276.

Murphy, P. 1982. Battle of the fossils v. property: controversy rages over plans. Southern Evening Echo, Friday, December 10, 1982, pp. 54-55. Extracts: Warning! Fossils can damage your property! Ask the residents of West Barton, where a metre of the cliffs crumbles every year. In less than 100 years, houses well away from the edge could be in danger of falling into the sea. Some locals claims 35 years would be a better estimate. Yet a plan by New Forest District Council to protect the coastline is being blocked by the Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) and Hampshire County Council. ...... Barton cliffs were a designated SSSI - site of special scientific interest - back in the fifties. It was one of the most important SSSIs in Britain, the NCC claim. ... Deputy head of the NCC's geology section, Dr Keith Duff, points out that his organisation has not opposed protection works where property was clearly and imminently at risk. .. His calculation is that West Barton has 80 years before its houses are at risk - time enough to develop new methods of protection without devastating effects on fossils. And the Department of the Environment is likely to support Dr Duff's view. The Government is putting pressure on engineers to find more effective methods of protection and is becoming increasingly wary of paying its share of up to 50 per cent of coastline schemes that last only 25-30 years.... Mr Webber calls Dr. Duff's "wait and see" approach "fatuous and futile". He believes locals have a right to the greensward at the top of the cliff - a much needed amenity in an area short of open space..... The dispute will without doubt go to a public inquiry... An inspector can stand back and take a more impartial view than either a local authority subject to political pressure or the NCC subject to conservation pressure... [A similar article is the Evening Echo, Bournemouth for Friday, December 17, 1982.]

Murphy, P. 1983. Coast protection plan is redrawn; application is split into three. Southern Evening Echo, Friday, January 21, 1983. New Forest District Council is drawing up a three-pronged attack to try to get coast protection works carried out at West Barton. The council has withdrawn its blanket planning application to protect the toe of the whole cliff from Chewton Bunny to central Barton. [continues]
Murray, J.W. and Wright, C.A. 1974. Palaeogene Foraminifera and palaeoecology, Hampshire and Paris Basins and the English Channel. Special Papers in Palaeontology, No. 14, The Palaeontological Association, London, 123 pp. Published December 1974. Authors John W. Murray and Christopher Wright. With 20 plates and 47 text-figures. [See pages 45-51 on Barton and Hordle. See particularly text-fig. 26 - Environmental interpretations applied to the correlation chart for the Barton Beds.]
Nature Conservancy Council. 1953. SSSI map and site description - Highcliffe to Milford-on-Sea. "Standard succession of the fossiliferous Barton Beds, Upper Eocene; and also exposing the Fluvio-Marine Lower Headon Beds, Oligocene [now Upper Eocene], with abundant shells and vertebrate remains." Also Geological Conservation Review - Vertebrate Palaeontology, Hordle, Hampshire. 6 May, 1981: "This is a key avian [bird] palaeontology site, yielding material of Upper Eocene age. So far 13 families (representing 8 orders) have been identified. Still more material remains to be described but already this is the type locality for 12 species. The site has yielded the earliest know diver Colymboides anglicus , and also includes Falconiformes, Anseriformes and Charadriformes. Several species that occur are common to both the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene. An important palaeontological and evolutionary site." Also site notification of Geological Conservation Review regarding Barton with a further statement of interest. "The coastal section from Friar's Cliff to Milford-on-Sea is the type locality for the Barton Beds and is also the best exposure of the Lower Headon Beds. The Barton Beds yield the most diverse and best preserved fauna of the British Tertiary while the Lower Headon Beds, which were deposited during a phase of coastal progradation in late Eocene times, demonstrate very clearly the relationships between the changing salinity of the coastal environments and fauna inhabiting them. One of Britain's most important stratigraphic and palaeontological sites."

Nature Conservancy Council. 1983. Barton Cliffs SSSI, Hampshire. Earth Science Conservation, 20, 49-50.
New Forest District Council. 1997. Coastal Management Plan. New Forest District Council, Town Hall, Avenue Road, Lymington, Hampshire, UK.
This discusses erosion of the Barton cliffs and the relevance to certain cliff top properties "which will probably be lost in the next 20 years". (see also the review of Few et al. 2004 on this topic.)

New Forest District Council. 1999. Adopted New Forest Local Plan. New Forest District Council, Appletree Court, Lyndhurst, Hampshire, UK.

New Forest District Council. 2006 etc. Coastal Management.
New Forest District Council has 60 km of coastline, extending from Chewton Bunny, Christchurch Bay in the west to Redbridge, Southampton Water in the east; this also includes approximately 9km of the lower reaches of the Beaulieu and Lymington Rivers within the Western Solent. This stretch of coastline has a wide range of geologically and geomorphologically important features that include soft cliffs, spits and barrier beaches, saltmarshes and mudflats. These dynamically evolving environments are also of international importance for nature conservation.
The NFDC Coastal Group has developed specialist expertise in coastal processes, coastal engineering, beach and cliff monitoring, hydrographic surveying, saltmarsh management, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modelling, and GIS, in order to improve decision making, understand the implications associated with management of the coast and to provide and maintain coastal defences in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable way.
The Coastal Group are involved in a wide range of coastal management initiatives and research programmes in partnership with a number of national and regional organisations, such as Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Environment Agency, English Nature, Hampshire County Council and Parish and Town Councils, with representatives on a number of Coastal Groups such as SCOPAC, Solent Forum, CoastNet and the Institute of Civil Engineers.
The South East Strategic Regional Monitoring Programme is coordinated by NFDC Coastal Group on behalf of 31 local authorities and the Environment Agency. The Channel Coastal Observatory has been established within the Southampton Oceanography Centre to undertake and coordinate the collection, management and dissemination of the coastal data.

New Forest District Council. 2001. Coastal Protection Strategy. Downloadable pdf file.
Newton, R.B. 1891. Systematic List of the F.E. Edwards Collection of British Oligocene and Eocene Mollusca in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum (Natural History), London.
Nicholls, R.J. 1985. The stability of shingle beaches in the eastern half of Christchurch Bay. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton.

Nicholls, R.J. and Webber, N.B. 1987. The past, present and future evolution of Hurst Castle Spit. Progress in Oceanography,vol. 18, pp. 119-137.
Nowell, D. 2008. Coastal land is only leased from the sea. Letter and emails to the Editor, Guardian Newspaper, Monday, April 21, 2008, p. 33.
When it comes to coastal erosion (Waves of destruction, G2, April 17), unlike most other European countries we don't have a solidarity fund to compensate people for such natural disasters, and so the last owner is expected to pay when their house is demolished.
To stop a perverse game of beggar-my-neighbour where the unscrupulous try to sell to unsuspecting buyers, we should be leasing such coastal properties from the sea. Any land that is likely to disappear within a century would in effect become leasehold and the time left stated on the title deeds. In addition to a solidarity fund, limited compensation could be paid if such estimates proved to be wrong. The British Geological Survey, which already undertakes coastal surveys, could provide fairly reliable estimates revised every decade for places with cliffs like Happisburgh. This would be rather more problematic further south along the Norfolk coast since a major breach to this narrow barrier could happen any time this century.
Once breached, the northern Norfolk broads and several villages would be lost, and so a proper cost/benefit analysis is urgently required. Coastal defences would interfere with the movement of sediment down the east coast of England and have to be balanced against any likely impacts further down the coast.
David Nowell, Fellow, Geological Society

Ord, W. 1914. Geology. By Dr. William T. Ord, F.G.S. Pp. 303-356 in: Morris, D. (editor) 1914. Book - A Natural History of Bournemouth and District, including Archaeology, Topography, Municipal Government, Climate, Education, Fauna, Flora and Geology. Bournemouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth, 400pp. Sold by Horace G. Commin, 100, Commercial Road, Bournemouth and Bright's Stores Ltd., The Arcade, Bournemouth. By the members of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, edited by Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G, J.P., M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.H.S., President, Natural Science Society. [Small book with hard blue cover and gold impressed letters, price on the cover - Half a Crown Net. ].[Not much detailed information on Barton and Highcliffe.]
Owen, R. 1848. On the fossils obtained by the Marchioness of Hastings from the freshwater Eocene beds of Hordle Cliff. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Oxford, (1847), 65-66.

Owen, R. 1861. Palaeontology or a Systematic Summary of Extinct Animals and Their Geological Relations. Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 463 pp. Second Edition. [Some discussion of Hordle vertebrate remains, such as Palaeotherium and crocodiles.]

Owen, R. and Bell, T. 1849-1858. Monograph of the Fossil Reptilia of the London Clay and of the Bracklesham and other Tertiary Beds. Palaeontographical Society Monograph. 49pp. and nine large plates. This old work has detailed etchings and descriptions regarding the "Hampshire Crocodile" ("Crocodilus Hastingsiae, Owen.") [ now Diplocynodon hantoniensis Wood, 1846, of the Upper Eocene, Headon Hill Formation of Hordle Cliff, Hampshire (and Oligocene of France and Eocene of Virginia, USA - see fossilworks webpage). Authors - Sir Richard Owen, KCB, FRMS, FRS, Director of the Natural History Museum, London (Lived from the 20 July 1804 - 18 December 1892), and Professor T Bell, F.R.S., F.L.S, FGS etc. (Lived. 1792-1880. and was Professor of Zoology at Kings College, London; he was born at Poole, Dorset, not very far to the west from Hordle Cliff.) He was the major specialist at the time on reptiles and amphibians. Professor Bell described those found by Charles Darwin on his voyage). For an early description of Crocodilus Hastingsiae - see Reports of the British Association, 1847, p. 65.
[extract from Owen and Bell, p. 37]
Crocodilus Hastingsiae, Owen
That Crocodiles with proportions of the jaws assigned to thd Eocene species noticed in Dr. Buckland's 'Bridgewater Treatise' and especially adapted for grappling with strong mammiliferous animals, actually existed at that ancient tertiary epoch, and have left their remains in this island, is shown by the singularly perfect fossil skull figured in the above-cited plates [VI, VII, VIII, IX, and XII, fig 2 and 5]. This specimen was discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings, in the Eocene fresh-water deposits [now the Headon Hill Formation] of Hordle Cliffs in Hampshire, which her Ladyship has described in the volume of 'Reports of the British Association' above cited (p.63). When the specimen was originally exposed, it was in the same extremely fragile and crumbling state as the beautiful carapaces of Trionyx [a fossil turtle] obtained by Lady Hastings from the same locality, adnd described and figured in the First Part of this Monograph on the Chelonia [i.e. turtles]; but thanks to the skill adn care with which the noble and accomplished discoverer readjusted and and cemented the numerous detached fragments of those specimens, the present unique fossil has been in like manner restored as nearly to its original state as is represented in the plates; and all the requisite characters for determining the nature and affinities of the species, can now be studied with the same facility as in the skulls of existing Crocodiles. If the readere will compare the plates above cited with the section of Cuvier's 'Ossemens Fossiles' he will see for example the fourth tooth or canine of the lower jaw is not received into a circumscribed cavity of the upper jaw, but is applied to a groove upon the side of the upper jaw, and is exposed. Fig. 1, T. VI, show that the prefontal (14) and lachrymal (73) bones, instead of descending much less upon the facial part of the skull, extend much more, and advance nearer to the end of the muzzle than in any Alligator, or even than in any actual species of broad-nozed Crocodile". ..... continues .. p. 49. "Whither trended that great stream, once the haunt of Alligators and the resort of tapir-like quadrapeds, the sandy bed of which is now exposed in the upheaved face of Hordwell Cliff?"
Phillips, P.H. 1973. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Barton Coast Protection Scheme. [extracts in Anon. 1980, referred to above].
[now - Dr Guy Plint, (Professor Guy Plint) Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. He has written key papers on the Eocene sediments of the Hampshire Basin, southern England, including Bournemouth, New Forest, Isle of Wight, English Channel Hampshire-Dieppe Basin etc.]

Plint, A. G. 1980. Sedimentary Studies in the Middle Eocene of the Hampshire Basin. Unpublished DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford (3 volumes).

Plint, A.G. 1982. Eocene sedimentation and tectonics in the Hampshire Basin. Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol. 139, pp. 249-254.
Sedimentary evidence in the Eocene (Cuisian-Lutetian) of the Hampshire Basin indicates important intra-Eocene movement on the Isle of Wight and Purbeck Monoclines, and on the Ridgeway Fault. Evidence for syn-depositional movement includes Jurassic and Cretaceous chert and flint pebbles in the Eocene, the distribution of which suggests derivation from both E and W. At Whitecliff Bay, two units of cross-bedded sand have northward-directed palaeocurrents and may have been deposited as localized fans of debris reworked from earlier Tertiary sediments on the upwarped side of the monocline. Three units of laminated muds are intercalated with marine sediments in the eastern part of the basin and suggest periods of low salinity, tideless conditions. These episodes are attributed to the periodic isolation of the Hampshire Basin from the fully marine Dieppe Basin to the SE. This may have been the result of intermittent movement on a tectonic barrier to the SE of Selsey. The onset of uplift and subsequent exposure of the Chalk along the southern margin of the basin proceeded unevenly from ?early Cuisian to late Lutetian times. Movement on the Portsdown Anticline probably occurred over a similar period. The Isle of Wight and Purbeck Monoclines are the superficial expressions of faults in the Palaeozoic basement, and not the result of lateral 'Alpine' pressures. A minor series of syn-depositional folds trend NW-SE across the basin and may reflect a component of sinistral strike-slip on basement faults. [This key paper has a good, speculative palaeogeographic map showing sediment sources. It has references to Curry, Daley and Edwards, Gale etc.] [The paper is also also relevant to Creechbarrow Hill and Creechbarrow Limestone, Dorset, the underlying sediments of which contain unabraded or sub-rounded flint nodules, weighing up to 30lb or 136kg - Huddleston 1903. Re Creechbarrow see also the work of Hooker on vertebrates.]

Plint, A.G. 1983. Facies, environments and sedimentary cycles in the Middle Eocene, Bracklesham Formation of the Hampshire Basin: evidence for global sea-level changes? Sedimentology, 30, 625-653.
The Bracklesham Formation is of Middle Eocene age and occurs throughout the Hampshire Basin of southern England. The basin is elongated east-west and filled with Lower Tertiary sediments. Its southern margin is marked by either large, northward-facing monoclines, or faults, both of which underwent differential movement, with uplift of the southern side throughout the Middle Eocene. The Bracklesham Formation, which is up to 240 m thick, shows pronounced lateral facies changes with dominantly marine sediments in the east passing to alluvial sediments in the west. Four principal sedimentary environments: marine, lagoonal, estuarine and alluvial are distinguished. Marine sediments comprise six facies including offshore silty clays and glauconitic silty sands, beach and aeolian dune sands, and flint conglomerates formed on pebble beaches. Offshore sediments predominate in the eastern part of the basin, as far west as Alum Bay [Isle of Wight], where they are replaced by nearshore sediments. Lagoonal sediments comprise four facies and formed in back-barrier lagoons, coastal marshes and, on occasions, were deposited over much of the basin during periods of low salinity and restricted tidal motion. Five estuarine facies represent tidal channels, channel mouth-bars and abandoned channels. These sediments suggest that much of the Bracklesham Formation was deposited under micro- to meso-tidal conditions. Alluvial sediments dominate the formation to the west of Alum Bay. They comprise coarse to fine sands deposited on the point-bars of meandering rivers, interbedded with thick sequences of laminated interchannel mudstones, deposited in marshes, swamps and lakes. Extensive layers of ball clay were periodically deposited in a lake occupying much of the alluvial basin. In alluvial areas, fault movement exposed Mesozoic rocks along the southern margin of the basin, the erosion of which generated fault-scarp alluvial fan gravels. Locally, pisolitic limestone formed in pools fed by springs emerging at the faulted Chalk-Tertiary contact. In marine areas, flint pebbles were eroded from coastal exposures of chalk and accumulated on pebble beaches and in estuaries. From other evidence it is suggested that older Tertiary sediments were also reworked. The Bracklesham Formation is strongly cyclic and was deposited during five marine transgressions, the effects of which can be recognized throughout the basin in both marine and alluvial areas. Each of the five transgressive cycles is a few tens of metres thick and contains little evidence of intervening major regression. The cycles are thought to represent small-scale eustatic sea-level rises ('paracycles,) superimposed upon a major transgressive 'cycle' that began at the base of the Bracklesham Formation, following a major regression, and was terminated, at the top of the Barton Formation by another major regression. This major cycle can be recognized world-wide and may reflect a period of rapid northward extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge.

Plint, A.G. 1988. Global eustasy and the Eocene sequence in the Hampshire Basin, England. Basin Research, vol. 1, pp. 11-22.
Recent improvements in biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic control in the Eocene sediments of the Hampshire Basin prompted direct comparison of depositional sequences in outcrop with those predicted by the latest and most detailed Exxon coastal onlap chart. This study focused on the upper two cycles of the London Clay Formation, the Bracklesham Group and the Barton Formation, comprising nine depositional sequences, each a few 10s of metres thick. The sediments were divided into three basic facies associations: marine, estuarine and alluvial. Depositional sequences invariably rest on a regional erosion surface cut during sea-level lowstand. The lower part of each sequence consists typically of 'estuarine' sediments (including tidal channel, lagoon, tidal flat and marsh deposits), laid down under brackish conditions during the early stages of sea-level rise. Estuarine deposits are typically erosively overlain by marine shoreface or shelf deposits; the eroded, pebble-strewn contact marks the passage of the marine shoreface. Marine deposits may be erosively overlain by alluvial sediments that record coastal progradation in response to stable or slowly falling sea level. Magnetostratigraphy, in the form of truncated or absent magnetozones provides supporting evidence for significant erosion during periods of lowstand. Every sequence can be matched to the Exxon coastal onlap chart, with one exception, which, on biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic evidence has been shown to be absent from the Hampshire Basin. The Exxon chart suggests that in this exceptional instance, coastal onlap was insufficient to effect marine deposition in the Hampshire Basin.
Poole and Christchurch Bays, Shoreline Management Plan - SMP - Key Publications

See these important documents on the plans for the coastal management or shoreline management of the area. Summarised contents of a version are given below and look for the section of interest. However, this SMP is not the final version, and there will be an update. If you do not find it directly from the links here, search by Google etc for the latest version, using the keywords - "Poole Christchurch SMP".

Poole and Christchurch Bays Coastal Management Group. 2010. (SMP - Shoreline Management Plan)
Poole and Christchurch Bays Coastal Management Plan (or SMP - Shoreline Management Plan). Draft SMP2. Draft version of the SMP, later to be replaced by final version (see this when it is available. SMP2 is due to be published in April 2010.). Available online as PDFs at Poole and Christchurch Bays Coastal Management Plan.

Contents: Draft SMP2
Section 1, Introduction
Section 2, Environmental Assessment
Section 3, Basis for Development of the Plan
Section 4, Appraisal of Options and Rationale for Preferred Plan:
Section 4.1, Introduction.
Section 4.2, Policy Development Zone 1 Central and Eastern Sections of Christchurch Bay (Hurst Spit to Friars Cliff).
Section 4.3, Policy Development Zone 2 Christchurch Harbour and Central Poole Bay (Friars Cliff to Flag Head Chine).
Section 4.4, Policy Development Zone 3 Poole Harbour and Associated Coastline (Flag Head Chine to Handfast Point, including Poole Harbour).
Section 4.5, Policy Development Zone 4 Swanage (Handfast Point to Durlston Head).
Section 5, Summary of Preferred Plan and Implications
Section 6, Policy Summary, including Policy Summary Map.
Appendices (all documents open in a new window)
Appendix A, SMP Development.
Appendix B, Stakeholder Engagement.
Appendix C, Baseline Process Understanding, including Coastal Process Report and Flood and Erosion Mapping. Accessible from a separate page including No Active Intervention (NAI) and With Present Management (WPM) assessments, and summaries of the data used in assessments.
Appendix D, Natural and Built Environment Baseline (Thematic Review).
Appendix E, Issues and Objective Evaluation.
Appendix F, Strategic Environmental Assessment.
Appendix G, Scenario Testing.
Appendix H, Economic Appraisal.
Appendix I, Estuary Assessment.
Appendix J, Habitat Regulation Assessment - Appropriate Assessment.
Appendix K, The Metadatabase, GIS and Bibliographic Database is provided to the operating authorities on CD. It will be included in the final SMP.
Appendix L, Water Framework Directive (WFD)
Appendix M, Review of Coastal Processes and Associated Risks at Hengistbury Head.

Prestwich, J. 1846. On the Tertiary or Supracretaceous Formations of the Isle of Wight, etc. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol. 2, 255-259. By Joseph Preswich, President of the Geological Society.

Prestwich, J. 1849. On the position and general characters of the strata exhibited in the coast section from Christchurch Harbour to Poole Harbour. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 6, 252-281.

Prestwich, J. 1857. On the correlation of the Eocene Tertiaries of England, France and Belgium. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 13, pp. 105, 115, 118-126, 131.
Quayle, W.J. 1987. English Eocene crustacea (lobsters and stomatopod). Palaeontology, 30, 581-612. Abstract: The Eocene lobsters of the London Clay, Bracklesham and Barton Beds are revised. Nine species of lobster are represented, three new Homarus morrisi, Hoploparia wardi and H. victoriae, belonging to six genera. [continues.]

Quayle, W.J. and Collins, J.S.H. 1981. New Eocene crabs from the Hampshire Basin. Palaeontology, 24, 733-758. Abstract: Eocene crabs are described from the London Clay of Highgate and Sussex; the Elmore Formation, Bracklesham Group of Lee-on-the-Solent, Hampshire; the Barton Beds of Christchurch Bay and Alum Bay, Isle of Wight; and the Middle Headon Beds of Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight. Twenty species are represented, sixteen new, belonging to fifteen genera, one of them new. The new taxa are: Dromilites simplex sp. nov .... [continues with list of species].

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Ravenscroft, W. 1927. The old church, Hordle, Hants. Milford-on-Sea Record Society, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 5-32. Referred to by Delair (2007). [This concerns erosion and loss of the old village of Hordle with its church on the top of Hordle Cliff]
Reed , F.R.C. 1913. Note on the Eocene beds of Hengistbury Head. Geological Magazine, 50, 101-103.
Rees , B.J. 1993. The Mudeford Quay Newsletter. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 1993. Issued by the Technical Services Division of Christchurch Borough Council. Mudeford Quay in danger of sinking. There are holes in sea-defences. £1m bid to save Quay.
Reeve, D., Chadwick, A. and Fleming, C. 2004. Coastal Engineering Processes. Theory and Design Practice. Spon Press.
Reid , C. 1989. The Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. [old edition - see also White, 1917 and the recent edition by Bristow et al. , 1991.]

Reid, E.M. and Chandler, M.E.J. 1925. The Upper Eocene Flora of Hordle, Hants., 1. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Reid, E.M. and Chandler, M.E.J. 1926. The Upper Eocene Flora of Hordle, Hants., 2. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Reid, E.M. and Groves, J. 1921. Charophyta of the Lower Headon Beds of Hordle [Hordwell] Cliffs, south Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 77, 175-192 plus plates 4-6.
Rendel Geotechnics. 1991. National Landslides Databank. Rendal Geotechnics, 58-72 John Bright Street, Birmingham, B1 1BN. Tel. 021-627-1777. Fax 021-627-1774. Computerised data banks for south-east and south-west England should retail at around £125 plus VAT (1991 figures). National Landslide Distribution Maps at 1:625,000 scale (north and south sheets) can be provided as dyelines at around £20 per sheet or overlay transparencies at around £40 per sheet. County Landslides Distribution maps at 1:250,OOO scale can be provided at around £75 per set including dyeline base map and two overlay transparencies for each county. PC-based landslide databank for Britain. Information on more than 9000 landslides. Descriptive data and bibliographic sources given.
Robinson , A.W.H. 1955. The harbour entrances of Poole, Christchurch and Pagham. Geographical Journal, 121, 33-50.
Romer, A.S. 1945. Vertebrate Paleontology. The University of Chichago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 687pp. Second Edition, 1945, Sixth Impression, 1955. By Alfred Sherwood Romer. The first edition was published in 1933. Re. Barton-on-Sea, go to pages 488-489 - Primitive Whales, (archaeocetes). Of general importance and not specifically on Barton-on-Sea or its deposits.
Rusu, A., Brotea, D. and Melinte, M.C. 2004. Biostratigraphy of the Bartonian Deposits from Gilau Area (NW Transylvania, Romania). Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, vol. 4 (2004) pp. 441-454. By Anatol Rusu, Despina Brotea and Mihaeala Carmen Melinte. Available online as a pdf file: Biostratigraphy of the Bartonian Deposits from Gilau Area (NW Transylvania, Romania).
Abstract. The present paper focussed on the biostratigraphy of the mollusks, larger foraminifers, benthonic and planktonic foraminifers as well as on calcareous nannofossils, identified in the Bartonian (Middle Eocene) deposits (Capusu Formation, Inucu Formation, Valeni Limestone and Ciuleni Formation) of the NW Transylvania region. The mollusks could be grouped in three assemblages, with the following ostrein horizons: Pycnodonte brongniarti, Sokolowia eszterhazyi, Ostrea bersonensis and Cubitostrea orientalis. The larger foraminifers are characteristic for SBZ 17 (Lower Bartonian) and SBZ 19 (Lower Priabonian) Standard Zones. The Nummulites perforatus Level is present in the Lower Bartonian. The benthonic foraminifers were assigned to the local biozones Pararotalia calveze, Pararotalia subinermis and Pararotalia lithothamnica. The planktonic foraminifera, identified from the upper part of the Capusu Formation belongs to the Morozovella lehneri Zone (P12). The calcareous nannofossil assemblages were assigned to the Discoaster tani nodifer (NP16), Discoaster saipanensis (NP17) and Chiasmolithus oamaruensis (NP18) Zones. The Lutetian/Bartonian boundary is placed just above the Pycnodonte brongniarti Level corresponding with the bloom of the nannofossil Reticulofenestra tokodensis (within the NP16 Zone). The Bartonian/Priabonian boundary could be approximated by the first occurrence of the Priabonian nummulites (bioevent placed within the NP18 Nannofossil Zone) toward the terminal part of the Ciuleni Formation.

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Samuel, O. Undated. Chewton Bunny, Highcliffe: The History of A Romantic Glen . Pamphlet, with old photographs and a map. 12 pp. By Olive J. Samuel. Extract from opening section regarding coast erosion and threat of destruction of houses at Highcliffe in the 14th century:
[Because of major loss of land around Highcliffe by coastal erosion of Barton Clay -] "Christchurch Priory has granted its villeins of South Chewton forty acres in lots to the west of Chewton Mill [i.e. Highcliffe, west of Chewton Bunny] in the thirty-first year of King Edward's reign (1366), in return for which the men have paid two marks as entry fee and are renting each acre at two-pence payable annually at the Feast of St. Giles: therefore they are not to be charged because of these acres, but neither are they to be excused from services which they did before this present concession; they may never claim compensation from the Priory for any of their land waste by the sea, nor relief from gifts previously owing by custom to the Priory: and if it is necessary to move their homes owing to marine devastation the men agree to rebuild at their own expense on the forty acres."
Sanders , T. and Cooper, J. Undated (probably 1980s). Illustrated Guide to Barton Fossils . Compiled by Tony Sanders and John Cooper; Illustrated by Glenn Sanders and Paul Trippier. 23 pp. [With listing of species and frequency in Lower, Middle and Upper Barton strata. Illustrations are monochome drawings. Gastropods, bivalves and others, including shark's teeth. A very useful and well-illustrated guide book.]
Schubert , R. 1915. Obereocaene Otolithen vom Barton Cliff bei Christchurch (Hampshire). Jahrbuche der K. K. Reichsanstalt, Wien, bd 65, 277-288.
SCOPAC in Solent Forum Web Site - including Coastal Protection.

SCOPAC, 1993? Coastal Sediment Transport Study. Leaflet on this is available from the Conference Secretariat at the Isle of Wight County Council, contact Helen Gaches 0983-823287. University of Portsmouth.

SCOPAC - Mannion, M. 1993? (pre 1994). Coast protection at Highcliffe. This may be the title page of a Report of SCOPAC, Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. Sea-Level Rise and Global Warming: Scenarios, Physical Impact and Policies, University of Portsmouth. It is published in one volume of about 200 pages and could be obtained on pre-payment of £25.00 + £2.00 postage and packing from Christchurch Borough Council. Plus other titles of reports on Barton and Highcliffe.

SCOPAC. 1998 et seq. SCOPAC News. (issue no. 4, 1998 seen) Newsletter of the Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. More information from Mr J. Pulsford, Secretary to the Conference, County Hall, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 1UD or telephone Barbara Herbert on 01983-823282.

SCOPAC. 1999. A Critique of the Past - A Strategy for the Future. Executive Summary. SCOPAC - Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. January 1999. Report to Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline by Rivers and Coastal Research Group (RACER), University of Portsmouth. 4 page brochure. For further information on the availability of the Report, please contact: SCOPAC Secretariat, c/o Isle of Wight Council, County Hall, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 1UD, tel. 01983-823282
Secretary of State, Department of the Environment. 1975. Town and Country Planning Act 1971. Application by the former Lymington Council. [Copy of a letter regarding a Joint Local Inquiry into an application by the former Lymington Borough Council to carry out coast protection works involving the construction of stone and concrete tripod revetments at Barton Cliff below the golf course and east of Becton Bunny. It gives the statement of the Inspector and is authorised by the Secretary of State. The Inspector said: "1. Bearing in mind the above findings of fact I am of the opinion that the construction of the proposed sea defence work would defeat the purpose of notifying the Barton Cliffs as a Site of Special Scientific Interest whose international importance as demonstrated by the support given to the case by the Nature Conservancy Council by geologists and others from all parts of the world. Also I am not satisfied that the works proposed would be more than a short term palliative and it seems probable that further remedial measures would be needed in the future.. 2 (unreadable few lines of the copy)...obscures the lower sections. The marked contrast between protected and unprotected cliffs (particularly in the most important sections) is such as to convince me that the proposed development would seriously diminish if not eliminate, the value and purpose of the SSSI. It would clearly be contrary to the provisions of the development plan and hence is unacceptable... 3. The history of coastal protection in Christchurch Bay seems to have been one of piecemeal construction of groynes and revetments, followed by small additions to protect the previous works. This has resulted in starvation of beach sediment on the down-current (eastern) end of any works and consequent severe cliff erosion. The likelihood is that the works covered by the application would merely displace the area of intense erosion to a point further eastwards and reduce the supply of protective beach material. 4. In view of the great importance of the SSSI to geology and the absence of valuable building land or property in the threatened area (only one green on the golf course might be affected and it is already very close to the cliff edge), I consider that planning permission should not be granted to the present proposals and that coastal protection in this area should be studied in a general survey by a body specialising in that subject. It is highly desirable that small lengths of sea defences should not be built until the outcome of such an investigation is known, but it this proves impossible, only protective measures which do not conflict with the geological requirements of the SSSI should be undertaken. From the evidence adduced, it seems to me that the proposed scheme is of doubtful merit, and other methods should be considered. 5. The Assessor, Dr. E.C. Freshney, agrees with my conclusions... The Inspector recommended that planning permission should not be granted." ... This continues with further comments of the Secretary of State and which are generally in agreement with the Inspectors conclusions. Planning permission is refused. ]
Seeley, H.G. 1876.Notice of the occurrence of remains of a British fossil Zeuglodon (Z. Wanklyni Seeley) in the Barton Clay of the Hampshire Coast. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 32, pp. 428-432.

Seeley, H.G. 1881. Note on the caudal vertebra of a cetacean discovered by Professor Judd in the Brockenhurst Beds, indicative of a new type of Balaenoptera (Balaenoptera Juddi). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 37, pp. 709-712. By Professor H.G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.G.S. The paper is available from the Geological Society of London.
The vertebra submitted to me by Professor Judd belongs to the caudal region; and although in a new type there may be some doubt concerning the exact place in the series, it may be affirmed to have been about the eighth caudal, and certainly not later than the twelth. The vertebra is probably distinct from all recent and fossil genera; but its characters are altogether in harmony with the Balaenidae; and the specimen indicates a genus more closely related to Balaenoptera than to Balaena, so far as can be judged from a single vertebra. This affinity is especially shown in the character of the base of the centrum, which had facets for chevron bones very small, and also in the general character of the neural arch, which is much less massive than in Balaena. [continues with text and with three, good quality, detailed figures of the caudal vertebra of Balaenoptera Juddi, from three different angles.].
Skempton , A.W. 1970. First-time slides in over-consolidated clays. Technical Note, Geotechnique, 20, 320-324.
Solander , D.C. 1766. [Description of fossil molluscs in Brander, G. 1766, Fossilia Hantoniensis.]
Small , R.J. 1964. Geomorphology, In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.), pp.37-50. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton. [Brief mention only of the Barton collapsing cliffs.]
Snowden, S.P.L. 2002. Eocene limestone and sarsen stones on the seabed, Christchurch Bay, English Channel. Unpublished undergraduate project, of the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton. 71pp.
Abstract: A number of sarsens have been found in a relatively small area on the seabed in Christchurch Bay situated in the Hampshire Basin. [continues]
[sarsen stones are blocks of quartz-cemented, well-sorted, medium size, quartz sandstone, most well-known to the public because of their use at Stonehenge].[The location is offshore within the general area of Christchurch Bay, eastern part. It is a square, with 2km sides and total area of 4km, and located with its northern part about 2.5km south of Hordle Cliff, and with a southeast corner about 2.3km, northwest of the Needles, Isle of Wight; i.e. it is not as far south as the Needles.]
Located by diver surveys these erratics [23 were found] mainly occur in a small valley on the eastern side of a ridge of higher relief. A fossiliferous, argillaceous sandy limestone with glauconite was found as a continual bed of unknown extent close to and possibly underneath the sarsen location. This bed was deposited during the Bartonian Stage and is similar to the septarian nodules found in the earthy beds of the middle Barton sequence. A review of studies on sarsen locations and formation processes indicates that the sarsens are probably related to past groundwater and drainage lines. Conditions conducive to sarsen formation have occurred within the Hampshire basin on a number of possible locations in the past. Possible theories into the reason for both the sarsen and the limestone ridge are discussed. These two geologically interesting formations may be related, with the limestone ridge containing clay minerals from which silica needed for sarsen formation is believed to be derived. [see also Calshot-Spit-Stanswood-Bay webpage, associated with this; for a photograph of a sarsen stone at the outcrop of the Barton Sands. A sarsen stone is present now on Bracklesham strata but only about 2km from the present outcrop of the (eroding) Bartonian strata. There are other examples in the region.]
Stamp , L.D. 1921. On cycles of sedimentation in the Eocene strata of the Anglo-Franco-Belgian basin. Geological Magazine, 58, 146-157.
St. Barbe , H. 1914. New Forest Geology. Pp. 357-364 in: Morris, D. 1914. A Natural History of Bournemouth and District; including Archaeology, Topography, Municipal Government, Climate, Education, Fauna, Flora and Geology. By the members of Bournemouth Natural Science Society. Published by the Bournemouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth, 400pp. Editor - Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., J.P., M.A., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.H.S., President of Bournemouth Natural Science Society.
Steers, J.A. 1946. The Coastline of England and Wales. Cambridge University Press, 644pp.

Steers, J.A. 1960. The Coast of England and Wales in Pictures. Cambridge University Press, 146pp.
Stevenson, I. 2016. (and 2008). Highcliffe Castle: Guide Book. Published by Christchurch Borough Council, 2008, revised edition 2016. 31 pages, paperback with colour illustrations. With a floor plan map of the castle By Ian Stevenson, editor - David Hopkins. This booklet can be purchased at the bookstall at the castle.
"Welcome. Highcliffe Castle has been described as arguably the most important surviving house of the Romantic and Picturesque style of architecture, which flourished at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Its significance is recognised by its Grade 1 status on the Statuary List of Buildings of Special Architectural and Historical Interest. There is an international importance, too. For a large amount of medieval French masonry, shipped across the English Channel, was used in its construction. It is this Norman and Renaissance carved stone, along with the Castle's Gothic revival features and ancient stained glass that makes it appear older than it is. Built mainly between 1831 and 1836 the Castle is the realisation of one man's fantasy. He was Lord Stuart de Rothesay, a distingushed diplomat who had known and loved the cliff-top site overlooking Christchurch Bay since he was a boy. This book traces the Castle's remarkable history and tells how a magnificent building, once lavishly furnished in the 18th century French style was reduced to a fire-ravaged, ruin. For years it had played host to royalty, the rich and the famous. Then for two decades, the 1970s and 1980s, only a flock of white doves came to stay amongst the derilict rooms. Today, the Castle's renovated exterior is testament to the remarkable skills of craftsmen and woman who carried out a huge repair and conservation programme in the 1990s, jointly funded by Christchurch Borough Council, English Heritage and 2.65 million pound grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. ... [continues].

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[Papers by Mr. Frederick Charles Stinton, distinguished amateur fish palaeontologist and geologist. Fred Stinton was a one-time medical technician of the hospital at Bournemouth in the 1950s but in his spare time he was a very active and energetic fossil collector from the Barton Clay and other Tertiary strata. He was investigating the Barton Clay cliffs before they deteriorated greatly because of sea-defence construction. He was a member of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, where I first met him, and he gave lectures on Barton fossils. He lived at one time at 51 Craigmoor Avenue, Strouden Park, Bournemouth.]

Stinton, F.C. 1957a. Fish otoliths from the London Clay of Bognor Regis, Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists Association, London. vol. 67, pp. 15-31. pl.2.

Stinton, F.C. 1957b. Teleostean otoliths from the Tertiary of New Zealand. Transactions of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, vol. 84, pp. 513-517, pl. 32.

Stinton, F.C. 1958. Fish otoliths from the Tertiary strata of Victoria, Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. 70, pp. 81-93, pl. 13.

Stinton, F.C. 1968. .... [details not given yet]

Stinton, F.C. 1971. Easter Field Meeting in the Isle of Wight. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, vol. 82, pp. 403-410.

Stinton, F.C. 1975. Fish Otoliths from the English Eocene, Part 1. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London, pp 1-56, plates 1-3. [By Mr. Frederick Charles Stinton, one-time medical technician of the hospital at Bournemouth in the 1950s and a very active fossil collector from the Barton Clay and other Tertiary strata. He was investigating the Barton Clay cliffs before they deteriorated greatly because of sea-defence construction. He was a member of Bournemouth Natural Science Society, where I first met him, and he gave lectures on Barton fossils.]
Abstract: This monograph on the English Eocene fish otoliths will appear in parts. Part 1 includes a revised English Eocene stratigraphy and a list of localities from which otoliths were obtained. The morphology and functions of otoliths of modern fishes are described, together with their relationships to fossil teleost faunas. Otoliths rarely occur with skeletal remains and reasons for this are considered. Otoliths are of limited use as zonal indicators but they may provide evidence of local ecological conditions. The systematic section describes 55 species of otoliths (29 new and 6 under open nomenclature) referable to 21 extant genera, representing 10 families from the Lepisosteidae to the Ophichthyidae in the classification of Greenwood et al. (1966).

Stinton, F.C. 197?. Fish Otoliths from the English Eocene, Part 2. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Stinton, F.C. 1978. Fish Otoliths from the English Eocene, Part 3. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London, vol. 132, (555), 1978, Part 3, pp. 127-189, [4], 9-12 leaves of Plates.

Stinton, F.C. 1980. Fish Otoliths from the English Eocene, Part 4. Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society, London. April 1980. Pp. 191-258, plates 13-16. Abstract: Part 4 continues the systematic section describing 87 species of otoliths (62 new and 8 under open nomenclature) referable to 41 extant genera representing 15 families, continuing the Serranidae to the Pomadasyidae (in part), in the classification of Greenwood. [This monograph has been digitised by the University of Chicago in 2011. It contains the following place and stratigraphical names: Alum Bay, Barton Formation, Bramshaw, East Wittering, Hampshire, Highcliffe, Isle of Wight, London Clay Group, Selsey Formation, Lower Swanwich, Sussex, Wittering Formation.]

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Stopher, H.E. and Wise, E.B. 1966. Coast erosion problems in Christchurch Bay. Journal of the Institute of Municipal Engineers, 93, 328-332.
Summerfield, M.A. and Goudie, A.S. 1980. The sarsens of southern England: their palaeoenvironmental interpretation with reference to other silcretes, In: The shaping of southern England. Institute of British Geographers, special publication, No. 11, Academic Press (1980), pp. 71-100.
Summers, L. and Maddrell, R.J. 1978. Barton-on-Sea: development of an alternative approach to coast protection. Unpublished paper presented to the Regional Meeting of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society, London at Southampton.
Symposium on Shoreline Protection . Tuesday 14 September 1982. At the Physics Lecture Theatre of the University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton. Organised by the Conference Officer, Institution of Civil Engineers, 1-7 Great George Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3AA. Includes: Mockridge, R.G., Borough Engineer and Deputy Chief Executive, Christchurch Borough Council. Contribution on: Highcliffe cliffs - maintenance of coastal slopes. Also a technical visit on Thursday 16 September 1982 to Bournemouth and Poole Bay, to include Milford, Hordle Cliff, Barton, Highcliffe, Mudeford, Southbourne and Boscombe.
Tawney, E.B. 1882. On the Upper Bagshot Sands of Hordwell Cliff, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 4, 140-155. By Edward Bernard Tawney.

Tawney, E.B. and Keeping, H. 1883. On the section at Hordwell Cliff from the top of the Lower Headon to the base of the Upper Barton Sands. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 39, pp. 566-574. With, as Fig. 1, Vertical Section of Hordwell Cliff from the top of the Lower Headon Beds to the base of the Upper Bagshot Beds..
By the late E.B. Tawney, Esq., M.A. and H. Keeping, Esq., of the Woodwardian Museum. [also relevant to the work of Barbara, Marchioness of Hastings]
[By Mr. Edward Bernard Tawney, M.A., F.G.S. (geologist, died Dec. 30th 1842, aged 42,) and Mr. Henry Keeping (proprietor of a lodging house in Colwell Bay, Isle of Wight, and known to Tennyson, and also Curator of the geological Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. He was also a paid fossil collector)]
"The Hordwell cliffs have been more or less cursorily examined by Webster, Lyell and Searles Wood, and they were described some time ago by Dr. T. Wright. Nevertheless the beds do not seem to be so well known to geologists as the interests of their fauna demands. The cause may perhaps be that observers of late years failed to find many of the extinct Ruminants which in former times were the especial features of the freshwater beds at Hordwell. The description of these deposits by the late Marchioness of Hastings contains the best information concerning the exact beds in which the vertebrates were found...."
"We [R.B. Tawney and H. Keeping] have collated the beds in the Marchioness's descriptions [Marchioness of Hastings] with our own, and quite largely from her work, as it has never been translated into English. It is indeed fortunate that she has so carefully preserved the information for us relating to the beds which have yielded the vertebrate remains [ie. crocodile, turtle, mammal and serpent remains]. The senior of the writers [presumably the E.B. Tawney] was then acting as her collector. He lived for a great part of his life close to Hordwell [Hordle] cliff, and for four or five years worked regularly on the cliffs, collecting fossils for the Marchioness. Facts relating to the exacts spots where the verebrae and other remains were found were communicated to her, though occasionally she would assist with her presence. We are particular in making this admission because there are some statements in her description which the writer cannot reconcile with his memory or the present state of the cliff. ....." [continues]
[This is an important and quite detailed paper with what is apparently a good vertical section and description. It does not seem to have been well-received by the Geological Society of London. Their study is not apparently in accordance with the report by the Marchioness and the discussion on p. 574 has criticism from Professor Judd. He said that a particular bed apparently seen in situ by many observers had been described by these particular authors as a squeezed-out mass.]
[This paper contains a detailed vertical section of the strata at Hordle Cliff and discussion of details.]
Taylor, J.A., Murdock, A.P. and Pontee, N.I. 2004. A macroscale analysis of coastal steepening around the coast of England and Wales. The Geographical Journal, , Vol. 170, No. 3, September 2004, pp. 179-188. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
Coastal steepening potentially presents an array of management issues in the form of financial implications of sea defence degradation, increased risk posed to the hinterland as wave attenuation is reduced, 'coastal squeeze' and statutory requirements in the light of the Habitats Directive. The extent to which coastal steepening has occurred throughout England and Wales has been investigated through use of a GIS and dataset based on historical Ordnance Survey map information. Data were collected along 1084 selected profile lines, positioned so as to be geomorphologically representative of the coast. Features recorded from each map year included the positions of mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), the relative movements of which infer changing intertidal gradients. The results presented in this paper are on a subject and scale not previously published. It is revealed that 61% of the coastline studied has experienced a tendency towards steepening. Of the remainder, 33% has flattened, and 6% has experienced no rotational movement. This tendency towards steepening has been the dominant movement on each of the west, south, and east coasts.
Tyhurst, M.F. 1985. Highcliffe Beach Nourishment Scheme. In Bevan, S.M. (ed.) , Gravel beaches: renourishment and recycling. Hydraulics Research, Wallingford, 25-27.

Tyhurst, M.F. 1993? Coastal vegetation work at Highcliffe-on-Sea. Coast Protection Officer, Christchurch Borough Council. Christchurch Borough Council Report. RLA may have copy. Titles - see Mannion.

Tyhurst, M.F. 1986. Rubble groynes at Christchurch, Dorset: four case histories. Christchurch Borough Council Report. Ref. MFT?CLN 09.06.86. Title - see Mannion.

Tyhurst, M.F. 1986. Observations on the Barton Series of Eocene Clays at Highcliffe on Sea. Christchurch County Council. MFT/CLN 03.10.86.

Tyhurst, M.F. 198? Coast protection measures at Hengistbury Head and their effect upon Christchurch Bay. Report of Borough of Christchurch, Borough Engineer's Department. M.F. Tyhurst, Senior Assistant Engineer (Coast Protection).

Tyhurst, M.F. 1996. Highcliffe-on-Sea: the local authority perspective. Field Guide, Conference of Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation, University of Portsmouth.

Tyhurst, M.F. and Hinton, M.T. 199? The evolution of Poole and Christchurch Bays: Another Look at the Flandrian Transgression. By M.F.Tyhurst and M.T.Hinton. Engineering Services Team, Christchurch Borough Council. Civic Offices, Bridge Street, Christchurch, BH23 1AZ, 16 pp. Abstract: The development of (Poole and Christchurch Bays) cannot be assessed by reference to sea level rise alone; tidal range may have been the single most important factor. Similarly, coastal erosion processes must also be taken into account in understanding the mechanisms of development. ;
[The first part of the text now follows: Introduction: There have been many contributions over the years to the vexed question of how Poole and Christchurch Bays were born of the ancient Solent River complex. All agree that the Flandrian Transgression was the primary mechanism, with the latest evidence suggesting that the whole process started pre-Flandrian times. The authors, members of an operational coastal engineering team became interested during the preparation of the Poole and Christchurch Bays Shoreline Management Plan, the principal author serving on the Steering Group. They have now approached the subject from a coastal processes point of view and with a particular local focus on Christchurch, their "home" base.
Earlier Work: Probably the most popularly reproduced early image of the proto-Solent was by Reid, 1902 (1), who was studying the geology around Ringwood, Hants. He envisaged the Solent River starting life as the modem Frome, flowing through what is now Poole and Christchurch Bays on its way to north of the Isle ofWight. Everard, 1954 (2) looked more closely at the Hampshire Basin and showed the chalk ridge now more usually called the Isle of Wight monocline as a major directing influence on the route of the proto-Solent. West, 1980 (3) recognised the possibility of a breach in the chalk bastion, allowing the southerly capture of the Frome and ultimately to the disintegration of the proto-Solent. Nicholls, 1987 (4) studied many of the early contributions and developed a more detailed model for this southerly capture. More recently, Velegrakis, 1999 (5) demonstrated that the capture was-pre-Flandrian. Figures 2 - 5 illustrate the first four of the above-mentioned.
Crenulate Bays: Any experienced coastal engineer would be familiar with the crenulate (or spiral) shape of Poole and Christchurch Bays, as shown in Figure 6. Bays of this type form when soft cliffs attempt to reach a stable shape when constrained between hard headlands. Figure 6 would also indicate to the engineer that Christchurch Bay is much less developed than its sister and therefore younger. Poole Bay is well advanced and even has "offspring" mini-crenulates at its western end. The shape of the Bays, further, indicate the principal direction of attack, in this case from the southwest. Theory suggests that without intervention, Poole Bay would reach an equilibrium state when its development behind Ballard Down gave sufficient shelter for erosion to cease. A similar scenario can be applied to Christchurch Bay, the danger of which is discussed later. [continues]
Velegrakis , A.F. 1994. Aspects of the Morphology and Sedimentology of a Transgressional Embayment System: Poole and Christchurch Bays, Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Oceanography, Southampton University, 319pp.

Velegrakis, A.F. and Collins, M.B. 1992. Marine Aggregate Evaluation of Shingles Bank, Christchurch Bay. Southampton University Technical Report, SUDO/TEC/92/14C, 13pp.

Velegrakis, A.F., Dix, J.K. and Collins, M.B. 1999. Late Quaternary evolution of the upper reaches of the Solent River, southern England, based on marine geophysical evidence. Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 156, pp. 73-87. [This is a key paper with a map showing the offshore buried channels in Poole Bay and Christchurch Bay.]
Abstract: Geological evidence suggests that during the Late Quaternary, a river system (the Solent River) drained a large part of central Southern England. Its upper reaches flowed in a west-east direction, flanked to the south by a Chalk ridge (the Purbeck-Isle of Wight Chalk Ridge). Today, only part of the upper reaches of the river's tributary channels remain, as the area was inundated during the Flandrian Transgression, forming. an embayment system (Poole and Christchurch Bays). In order to map the offshore buried channels of the upper reaches of the Solent River an extensive set of shallow-marine geophysical data was analysed and interpreted. The results of this investigation show that the Solent River system was disrupted irreversibly by southerly capture of its upstream section before the Flandrian Transgression. This disruption was the result of the fluvial breaching of the southern barrier of the system (the Purbeck-Isle of Wight Ridge) at three points, probably during Late Devensian time. Poole Bay was first to be submerged during the transgression. The estuaries which resulted from the drowning of the fluvial palaeovalleys of Poole Bay were infilled with transgressive facies sequences which have been preserved within the buried palaeovalleys. In contrast, Christchurch Bay was submerged at a later time, but because of the abrupt manner of its inundation, no transgressive facies have been preserved within its buried palaeovalleys. [end of abstract]
[Example extract from the introduction] The Isle of Wight, southern England, is separated from the mainland by a stretch of water known as the Solent (Fig. I). The Solent is located at the southern margin of the Hampshire Basin, an elongated asymmetrical downwarp of Tertiary deposits, the southern limb of which exhibits a near-vertical northern dip, whilst the beds on its northern limb slope gently southward (Melville and Freshney 1982). It has been widely proposeq that, during Pleistocene lowstands, the Solent formed a segment of a major axial stream (the 'Solent River'), which integrated all the consequent rivers of the basin (Fox 1862; Reid 1905; Everard 1954; West 1980). It has been suggested that this river constituted one of the principal northern tributaries of the English Channel River, a major river system established over northwestern Europe early in the Middle Pleistocene Epoch (Gibbard 1988). The Solent River flowed along a large W-E-trending valley incised into Tertiary arenaceous and argillaceous sediments and surrounded by high Chalk country (the Wiltshire and North Dorset Downs to the north and the South Dorset Downs and the Purbeck-Wight Chalk Ridge to the south). Much of the catchment area of the river was drowned during the last eustatic sea-level rise. Only parts of the tributary river systems are still intact; these form the modern drainage network of the area (Fig. 2).
Evidence for the existence of the Solent River system is distributed throughout the area. Onshore, extensive deposits of Pleistocene sands and gravels occur, forming terraces along the present river valleys (Keen 1980; Freshney et al. 1985; Allen and Gibbard 1993), and underlying the Flandrian deposits of some of the estuaries of the area (Nicholls 1987). Offshore, marine geophysical surveys have revealed systems of buried river valleys under the present seafloor, incised to a maximum depth of 46 m below OD to the east of the Isle of Wight (Hamblin et al. 1992). [continues for more than 14 pages, with maps and diagrams].

Velegrakis, A.F., Dix, J.K. and Collins, M.B. 2000. Late Pleistocene - Holocene evolution of the upstream section of the Solent River, Southern England. Pp. 97-99 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp. [Using shallow seismic and echo-sounder profiles, seven palaeovalleys have been recognised offshore in Poole and Christchurch Bays. In Poole Bay, Palaeovalleys I, II and III appear to cut southward through the Purbeck-Wight ridge. In contrast Palaeovalleys IV, V, VI and VII in Christchurch Bay do not appear to cut through the Ridge. Valley-filling sediment of significant thickness are found only within Palaeovalleys I and II (Incidently Palaeovalley I has recently been intersected by a civil engineering borehole on the Sandbanks Peninsula)]

Velegrakis, A. 2000. Geology, geomorphology and sediments of the Solent System. Pp. 21-43 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp.
    The Solent (Figure 1) forms the largest estuarine system of the southern coast of the UK. The constituent components of the system include the West and East Solent and their approaches, Southampton Water, Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours and other smaller tributary river estuaries (e.g. Beaulieu, Lymington and Yar) found along the southern Hampshire and Isle of Wight coastlines. Parts of the coastline are characterised by coastal accumulation forms, such as barrier spits and islands (e.g. Hurst and Calshot Spits in the West Solent and Hayling Island in the East Solent), inter-tidal flats and saltmarshes (e.g. Lymington Flats). Erosional coastal environments (Le. coastal cliffs) are also present, particularly along the coastline of the Isle of Wight The offshore areas also show complex morphology (Figure 1), associated with several offshore banks and deeply-incised channels (e.g. Hurst Narrows).
    The Solent has attracted a great deal of human economic development, including extensive urban and industrial development, agriculture, shipping, fisheries, recreation, marine aggregate extraction and offshore oil exploration (Shell, 1987). At the same time, the area is associated with important conservation areas such as the National Nature Reserves (NNR), Sites of Scientific Interest (SSSI), Local Nature Reserves (LNR), as well as important archaeological sites. This diverse human activity both influences and is influenced by the physical characteristics and dynamics of the natural environment Therefore, frequent monitoring is necessary, in order to assess the human impact on the environment and its evolution and, equaIly important, to understand and predict the influence of such evolution on the regional economic development The understanding of the dynamic interrelationships between nature and economic development forms the 'backbone' of 'sustainable development' policies, which emerge as the main UK and European Union environmental strategy.
    The objective of this contribution is to review the present state of knowledge and identify gaps in information on some of the physical characteristics of the Solent Estuarine system and, particularly, its geology, geomorphology and sedimentology. In this sense, this contribution forms an update of the meticulous reviews of West (1980) and Dyer (1980)... [continues]
Wall, G.R.T. and Jenkyns, H.C. 2004. The age, origin and tectonic significance of Mesozoic sediment-filled fissures in the Mendip Hills (SW England): implications for extension models and Jurassic sea-level curve. Geological Magazine, July 2004, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 471-504.
In the eastern Mendip Hills, on the northern margin of the Wessex Basin, SW England, the Carboniferous Limestone is cut by numerous fissures that are filled with Mesozoic sediments (sedimentary dykes, neptunian dykes). The fissures contain a record of Triassic-Lower Jurassic sediments that are only sparingly preserved in their normal stratigraphical position between the Carboniferous Limestone and the unconformably overlying Upper Inferior Oolite of Bajocian age. Detailed analysis of cross-cutting relationships, facies analysis, biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and strontium-isotope ages of relevant Mesozoic sediments has allowed the construction of an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic fissure-fill stratigraphy for the eastern Mendip area. Most fissures were clearly formed by rapid influx of unlithified sediment from the land surface or sea floor. Some smaller cavities, or larger cavities with restricted access to the unconformity, were apparently filled by sediment that trickled down into the fissure system. The vast majority of the Mendip fissures are interpreted as having formed as a response of the Carboniferous Limestone, north of major basin-bounding faults, to pulses of tectonic extension during Ladinian-Norian/Rhaetian, late Hettangian-early Sinemurian, late Sinemurian-early Pliensbachian, mid-Pliensbachian, late Pliensbachian and Bajocian times. Triassic-earliest Jurassic fissures have a broad spread of strike from E-W to NW-SE to N-S, accommodating extension in a roughly NE-SW direction. Younger Jurassic fissures show well-defined E-W and N-S trends with the former becoming dominant through time. Total extension of approximately 4.7 percent N-S and approximately 0.6 percent E-W was produced by the formation of Triassic-Jurassic fissures within the Carboniferous Limestone. Such patterns of extension are thought likely to be characteristic of the subsurface geology in much of southern England and Wales. Major implications of this study are that: (1) the presence of seismically unresolvable sediment-filled fissures in supposedly rigid fault blocks can lead to a significant underestimate of regional extension based on the restoration of motion on normal faults on seismic-reflection profiles, and (2) the isolation of pulses of tectonic activity with a temporal resolution of 105-106 years may provide a means of identifying a tectonic signal in relative sea-level curves derived from the Jurassic sedimentary record.
[relevant to the rock armour blocks of Carboniferous Limestone at Barton]
Webster, T. 1814. On the freshwater formations of the Isle of Wight etc. Transactions of the Geological Society, London, 2, 161-254.

Webster, T. 1822. [Early record of the Headon Hill Formation with freshwater fossils at Hordle Cliff. Full reference to be provided later.]
West, G.H. 1885. Coast erosion report. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 427.

West, I.M. 1980. Geology of the Solent Estuarine System. In "The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge", N.E.R.C. Pub. Ser. C., No. 22 , November 1980. pp 6-18. A concise review of knowledge of the geology of the estuaries up to 1980 with reference list.
White, H.J.O. 1915. The Geology of the Country near Lymington and Portsmouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, pp.v + 78.

White, H.J.O. 1917. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth: Explanation of Sheet 329 [Geological Survey 1 inch to one mile sheet for Bournemouth]. 2nd Edition. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. Published by order of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury. Printed by J. Truscott and Son, Ltd, under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office. 79 pp. [This is an old edition of the Geological Survey Memoir - see also - Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, London, 116p. There is also the first edition of 1898 by C. Reid. Prefacxe to the Second Edition by A. Strahan, Director: "The first edition of this Memoir, which was written by the late Mr. Clement Reid, was exceptionally brief, a general memoir descriptive of the Hampshire Basin as a whole having been at that time in contemplation. Circumstances have prevented the preparation of the larger work, and opportunity has now been taken ot the exhaustion of the stock of the original pamphlet to produce a memoir on the lines of other New Series Sheet Explanations... continues .. Much of the ground has been re-examined by Mr. White in order to bring the memoir up to date, but the map remains unaltered as the edition published in 1895 and colour-printed (Drift) in 1904."]
Williams, G.E. 1970. A Contribution to Stability Studies of the Undercliffs in the Coastal Outcrop of the Barton Clays. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Southampton.

Wintle, A.G. 1981. Thermoluminescene dating of late Devonian loesses in southern England, Nature, 289, pp. 479-480. (5th February 1981).
Scattered across southern England are many isolated deposits of loess-like material. A few, such as that at Pegwell Bay in Kent, are highly calcareous and unweathered but most have been reworked by fluvial or colluvial processes. There is good stratigraphical evidence for a few pre-Devensian loesses, also in Kent, but dating of more recent loess has so far been based on indirect evidence. Much work has been done on the Pegwell Bay loess as it is the most extensive, truly aeolian loessic deposit in Britain. Kerney compared the late Devensian deposits in the Isle of Thanet and at Pegwell Bay with similar deposits in Holland and Belgium where radiocarbon dates have been obtained for interstadial deposits. Correlation of the East Kent deposits with these in Northern Europe indicates that the loesses in Kent were formed between 30,000 and 14,000 yr ago. I report here dates for six of the more recent deposits in southern Britain from the Scilly Isles to Kent. The dates have been obtained on the loess itself, using a recently developed thermoluminescence (TL) dating technique and confirm the ages as being late Devensian.
[p. 17. "The Naish Farm material is probably continuous with that at Barton-on-Sea for which a late Devensian date has been given by thermoluminescence dating (Wintle, 1981)." statement in Barton (1984)]

Wise, E.B. 1963. Unpublished report to the Chairman and Members of the Beach Committee. Borough of Christchurch, 1-5.
Wood, S.V. 1846. On the discovery of an alligator and of several new mammalia in the Hordwell Cliff; with observations upon the geological phenomena of that locality. London Geological Journal, , vol. 1, pp. 1-7, 117-122, pls. 1,2,6 and 7.

Wood, S.V. 1861-1877. A Monograph of the Eocene Bivalves of England. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society. [not completed].
Woodward, A.S. 1899. Notes on the teeth of sharks and skates from the English Eocene Formations. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 16, 1-14.
Wright, C.A. and Wilson, J.R. 1970. Jarosite from the Eocene of the Hampshire Basin. Mineralogical Magazine, 37, 941.

Wright, D. 1998. Barton-on-Sea: the local authority perspective. Pp. 248-255 in: Bray, M. and Hooke, J. 1998b. Geomorphology and management sites in Poole and Christchurch Bay. (with contributions by other authors) Pp. 233-266 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. ["Coast protection works in Christchurch Bay are believed to have begun about 1840 with a groyne scheme at Highcliffe. Serious protection works began in 1938 when the Long Groyne at Hengistbury Head was built which intercepted the movement of shingle from Poole Bay into Christchurch Bay. There followed a denundation of the beaches downdrift and subsequently an acceleration of the rate of cliff erosion between Hengistbury Head and Barton-on-Sea. This prompted a series of protection works at Mudeford, Highcliffe, Barton and Milford on Sea, beginning in 1944. The most extensive works were constructed between 1964 and 1969 at Highcliffe and Barton, and extended in the 1970s and 80s. Between Barton and Milford (downdrift), beach levels have fallen alarmingly over the last 10-20 years, particularly to the west of Milford where a previously buried seawall is now suffering undermining of its foundations, the beach level having fallen by more than 2m in five years." ... continues. By Doug Wright of the New Forest District Council]

Wright, P. 1982. Aspects of the coastal dynamics of Poole and Christchurch Bays. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton, 201pp.

Wright, T. 1851. A stratigraphical account of the section at Hordwell, Beacon and Barton Cliffs, on the coast of Hampshire. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 2), 7, 433-446.

Wright, T. 18?? [Not seen. On Hordle Cliff etc, and perhaps similar to the above paper]. Proceedings of the Cotteswold Field Club, vol. 1, 120-130.
Wrigley, A. 1925-1953. Series of papers on English Eocene and Oligocene Gastropoda. In: Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London.

Wrigley, A. 1927. Notes on English Eocene Mollusca with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London, 17, pts. 5 and 6, 216-249.

Wrigley, A. 1951. Some Eocene Serpulids. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 62, 177-202.

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Yandell, C. 2007. Could a Quake Like This Ever Hit the South. (Tuesday's Spotlight: In the aftermath of the biggest earthquake to hit the UK for years, the Daily Echo assesses the risks of a massive tremor devastating the region.) Daily Echo, Southampton, Tuesday, 1 May, 2007. pp. 8-9. By Chris Yandell [A follow-up to national news on the earthquake in Kent. The Daily Mirror gave a very exaggerated story about a crack in the Barton cliffs being caused by the earthquake. This was nonsense. There was also an erroneous BBC New internet report. The Yardell article contains a simple map and some photographs including one of Ian West and one of beach hut owner Tim Baber.]

"It struck without warnng and devastated an ntire neighbourhood. The biggest earthquake to hit the UK for five years damaged more than 474 buildings in Folkestone, Kent, and left many residents homeless. The quake, which measured 4.3 on the Richter scale, is likely to result in a repair bill running into tens of mil lions of pounds. However, the shock waves - in one sense at least - have spread far beyond the town itself. People in the Hampshire village of Barton on Sea have been left wondering whether a huge crack in the cliffs is the result of what happened 140 miles along the coast. A debate has also begun on whether Barton and neighbouring communities could one day suffer the same fate as Folkestone. The tremors that wreaked havoc in Kent originated near an underground fault line that extends across the English Channel from France. A similar line dissects the Isle of Wight and then continues west, skirting the coastal communities of Keyhaven, Christchurch and Barton. With six quakes in the UK in the past 23 years, it may be just a matter of time before the scenes witnessed in Kent are repeated in Hampshire.

However, people living and working on the coast can draw comfort from the reassuring messages being issued by people such as Dr Lisa McNeill. A lecturer at the School of Ocean and Earth Science at the University of Southampton, Dr McNeill says Barton is no more at risk than: many other parts of the UK. "There are hundreds of faults all over England, most of which are old and completely inactive," she said. "The western side of the country and communities near the English Channel are more prone to earthquakes than other parts of the UK. "We're in the middle of a plate and most of the activity tends to take place on the edges. "There's no reason for anyone in this part of the country to be particularly worried. In fact, they should be less worried than people living in areas such as north-west Wales".


Meanwhile, experts are continuing to inspect the damage to the cliffs at Barton. Shortly after the quake struck Folkestone at 8.18am on Saturday, part of the coastline was sealed off amid fears that the 31-metre fissure spotted near the eastern end of the village could cause a massive land slide. More than 50 beach huts at the base of the cliff were evacuated to prevent anyone being crushed by falling rock.

People are divided on whether the fissure was caused by the Kent quake or is simply the latest evidence of the erosion that has plagued the area for generations.

The Maritime and Coastguard Agency claims it is "too coincidental" to ignore any link between the crack and the destruction that occurred in Folkestone. However, some of the beach hut owners say the crack began to appear about a month ago.

Dr Ian West, of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, is more concerned about the problems that appear to be building up at the opposite end of the village. He said: "All the recent publicity has centred on a small fissure near Marine Drive East. A much larger one at the western side of Barton shows new signs of movement. This is more important and represents the start of a much larger cliff fall. "It's going to go in the future - we just don't know when."

Dr West has visited the area and posted a warning on his website, saying the latest cracks have appeared in the past few weeks. He adds: "Movement has occurred at the old sheet piling - a relic of failed sea defences. The gravel has sunk appreciably; exposing a large piece of piling that's very much tilted towards the sea. "Water is flowing through a gap and lubricating any major landslide. This stretch is going to collapse further."

[end of main article, but original contains illustrations].

Adjunct on the same page:

Tim's Beach Hut Idyll is Threatened by Falling Cliff Nearby:

When Tim Baber, pictured, paid thousands of pounds for his beach hut, he expected to be relaxing in it and erooying the sea air on most weekends. But, when he turned up to do just that on Saturday, he was shocked to find the police would not let him get anywhere near it. A huge section of cliff immediately above his £6,000 hut in Barton on Sea is threatening to collapse and, until council officials assess the risk, Tim's hut is out of bounds.

The librarian, from Ringwood, said: Its an awful lot of cliff to fall if it does fall. "But I would expect it to slump before it either slides down or tumbles down. Unfortunately, cliffs falling onto beach huts is nothing new. "The police did the sensible thing and shut the section including my beach hut off to avoid the possibility of a tragedy."

But Tim said the large crack in the cliff above his beach hut was there when he purchased the hut on April. He said: "It worried me slightly when I first saw it. But nothing, as far as I can see, has changed since then. This crack might have been there for many years and extended recently. "It is a gentle slope below the crack, so I thought any cliff that falls would dissipate before it reaches my hut.

"I have a very pragmatic point-of-view. If it falls, it falls, but I have great confidence in the strength of my hut." Tim also runs a website called Mudeford Sandbank News.

He wrote about the crack in the cliff on the website on April 8, stating: "Whilst I can sit in my reclining deck chair listening to the latest tunes on my iPod and looking out at the Needles lighthouse, it is only a question of time before many cubic metres of gravel and rock slip in my direction."

When police shut off sections of the road and the cliff at Marine Drive East, there was speculation it was related to the earthquake in Kent on the same morning.

But Tim said: "I don't believe this crack is connected to the earthquake - it was there long before then."

Coastal experts from New Forest District Council were due to assess the cliff face at Barton on Sea this week to decide whether the beach huts can be used again and if action to stabilise the cliff is needed.

[end of article. See also Miller and Nash (2007) for an unfortunately erroneous account of the Barton Crack].

Young, J.A. 1989. The Story of Southbourne. Bournemouth Local Studies Publications, No. 695. The Professional Education Centre, 40 Lowther Road, Bournemouth, BH8 8NR. 50pp. with photographs. ISBN 0 906287 63 4. [Not on the Highcliffe, Barton, Hordle coast but showing the effects of erosion and destruction of sea-defences at Southbourne, Bournemouth.]

Zanazzi, a., Khohn, M.J., MacFadden, B.J. and Terry, D.O. 2007. Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America. Nature, London, No. 445, pp. 639-642. By Alessandro Zanazzi, Matthew J. Kohn, Bruce J. MacFadden and Dennis O. Terry.
Abstract: The Eocene-Oligocene transition towards a cool climate (approx 33.5 million years ago) was one of the most pronounced climate events during the Cenozoic era1. The marine record of this transition has been extensively studied. However, significantly less research has focused on continental climate change at the time, yielding partly inconsistent results on the magnitude and timing of the changes. Here we use a combination of in vivo stable isotope compositions of fossil tooth enamel with diagenetic stable isotope compositions of fossil bone to derive a high-resolution (about 40,000 years) continental temperature record for the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We find a large drop in mean annual temperature of 8.2 plus or minus 3.1 degrees C over about 400,000 years, the possibility of a small increase in temperature seasonality, and no resolvable change in aridity across the transition. The large change in mean annual temperature, exceeding changes in sea surface temperatures at comparable latitudes, and possibly delayed in time with respect to marine changes by up to 400,000 years, explains the faunal turnover for gastropods, amphibians and reptiles, whereas most mammals in the region were unaffected. Our results are in agreement with modelling studies that attribute the climate cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition to a significant drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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|Home and Contents |Field Guides - Introduction |Geology of Highcliffe and Barton |Highcliffe and Barton Coast Erosion and Sea Defences |History of Coast Erosion and Sea Defences at Barton-on-Sea and Highcliffe |Hordle Cliff |Hurst Spit |Hengistbury Head |New Forest Geology |Isle of Wight Bibliography |Solent Estuaries |Bournemouth Cliffs

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Dr Ian West, author of these webpages

Webpage - written and produced by:

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at his private address, Romsey, Hampshire, kindly supported by Southampton University,and web-hosted by courtesy of iSolutions of Southampton University. The website does not necessarily represent the views of Southampton University. The website is written privately from home in Romsey, unfunded and with no staff other than the author, but generously and freely published by Southampton University. Field trips shown in photographs do not necessarily have any connection with Southampton University and may have been private or have been run by various organisations.